Travelling through the dark


“Travelling through the dark”, by William Stafford poem was published in 1962. The poem was set in nature where the speaker was driving in a dark narrow path. He found a she deer which had been recently hit by the car. Through this poem his actions and emotions comes out as he made his choices. Themes of conflict of birth and death, creation and destruction, man and nature and effects of technology are further explained. The poet used excellent styles of symbolism and imagery to pass on his message.

Themes and Styles

One day, the traveler was driving through a narrow path and found a deer that lay dead on the road. The poet was in the middle of making decisions of saving the life of a deer; which had been recently hit by a car. In the first stanza he said “Travelling through the dark” (Poets 1). This symbolized danger and uncertainty as he drove near Wilson River road. The dark was significant to everything that existed in that scene including the deer, the fawn, the driver as well as the car.

Repetition of the title in the first stanza emphasized the situation. This was followed by appearance of the dead deer and this creates another impression to the reader. He explained the scene. The traveler was faced with a moral dilemma on which he had to decide on the immediate action.

His description of the pregnant deer explains the feelings of the traveler towards this deer. In the midst of death the traveler then found life in the dead deer. Knowing in reality this fawn would not be born, he was filled with sadness. Finally, his view of death was seen as he felt death was inevitable. He could not do anything about it, and he could not be able to save the deer’s life.

Darkness was a symbol of danger and venturing into unknown. He was uncertain of his safety. The deer seemed to cross the path with uncertainty in that it could probably be hit by cars. The young deer in the deer’s belly was uncertain with life in that it was just hopeless to be born because the mother was already dead. The speaker thought about how he could save the life of the unborn deer by getting it from the womb of the mother, but he was not sure if the young deer would survive without a mother in this dark environment.

Man was also afraid that his valuable, i.e. an automobile would be damaged by having an accident with the deer as they crossed the narrow path. The speaker wondered what he could do. He said that, “It is usually best to roll them into the Canyon” (Poets 1). This was in contrast to what he felt as his responsibility.

People’s decisions were not considerate of the nature and that is why the speaker said that it was usually best to dump them in the canyon. This was a good indication of unfair treatment to the nature where people never cared for the deer they hit with their cars as they drove. The environment of his driving in the narrow road could probably cause more deaths of deer.

The theme of conflict came out clearly. There was a conflict of life and death. The deer had been killed yet it was pregnant. As the speaker touched its belly, he was sorry that he could not be able to save the young deer that was warm in the belly of the dead deer. Death of the deer as it was almost ready to give birth was a contrast and symbolized the severity of the killing.

Cars did not only hit the living creation, but even what was about to be born. As the young deer was being formed in the belly of the deer mother, man and his technology ruined what was forming in the womb. Darkness moment was seen in the young deer, as it was alive, still and never to be born (Poets 1).

Man and nature were in conflict. The narrow path which they used had caused several deaths of the deer. Though it was not man’s wish to hit the deer he found himself killing the deer and some tried to rescue what they had already killed. Technology of using cars was what caused death of the deer.

Imagery was used in various instances in this poem. In the second stanza, the speaker was in the glow of the tail light when he stopped to examine the victim deer. She had stiffened and was almost cold (Poets 1). The deer was said to have a big belly. The reader became sympathetic with the situation understanding that the deer was pregnant. His language was precise and he did not want to cause very strong emotions.

He wanted to confront brutality of human beings towards nature. He placed man in a situation which he was able to conserve the environment. He also related the first driver to the second driver and their responsibilities. The first driver had hit the deer and left it lying down on the ground and did not take responsibility. The second driver, the speaker was sympathetic to the deer and his actions are filled with humanity and the desire to save life (Fairchild 1).

The fourth stanza discussed the car. The exhaust was turning red and its lights were going dim. He could only feel the silence in the wilderness and felt like it was listening to him. The last thing he did was to push the dead deer into the river after deep thought about himself and the deer (Poets 1). This was a hopeless situation. He had no other choice, other than to push the deer to the edge of the river. He felt bad that he could not be able to save her life or the life of young deer. The young deer too had to suffer death (Fairchild 1).

Around our group I could hear the wilderness listen; I thought hard for us all—my only swerving; then pushed her over the edge of the river…“That road is narrow; to swerve might make more dead (Poets 1).

Swerving in this poem meant negligence of one’s duty and swerving of the automobile which caused death of the deer; swerve was also written in the first stanza where the speaker said, “that road is narrow; to swerve might make more dead” (Poets 1).

This meant that it was dangerous to leave the dead deer on the road as it could possibly cause more deaths. It portrayed the nature of human to protect lives. He hesitated on his action as he knew that life was very precious (Hobsons 1).

This poem is significant in day to day life. Man is usually faced with choices in life. Sometimes things do not happen as he wished them to and he has to face reality of matters such as death. Choices also vary in their significance; where some of them might be very vital so as to save a life. Some of the choices people make do not always affect their lives but may be affecting nature (Bengstsson 1).

The speaker used a remorseful tone. Using a deer that suffered death was a symbol of innocence, bravery and the short time it took to take away its life. The significance of this was to show the deaths in deer were not only once or twice, but a matter of many victims that took away the lives of many.

This poem upholds life, not only of human beings but also that of nature. People value life but sometimes they might not be able to do anything to save it. Technology, such as that of automobiles is seen to have a negative impact on nature because it caused a cycle of deer’s deaths (Fairchild 1). However, decisions should be made carefully to avoid such situations. Life is important to both human and the wild. Death is a loss that causes even others who could have been born to die.

Works Cited

Bengstsson, Gunner. Analysis and Comments on Travelling through the Dark by William Stafford. American Poems, 2011. Web. 08 June, 2011.

Fairchild, Terry. Modern American Poetry. English Illinois, 2011. Web. 08 June 2011. .

Hobsons, Alex. Life’s cycle. College confidential, 2011. Web. 08 June, 2011. .

Poets. American., 2011. Web. 08 June, 2011.

Case Study of Space Center Enterprises


For the success of any business, it is important that there be separations of ownership from management. A business should be run professionally in order to ensure that it survives hurdles in the business environment. Empirical evidence provided by financial experts show that one of the main causes of business failure is family relations or family problems (Aronoff & Ward, 1996).

In fact, it is ranked as the main cause of business failure in small-scale businesses. This is a case study of a family-held business. It will be used to show the family conflict, transitions and connection between the conflicts and performance.

In its life, Space Center Enterprises or Maritex, as it is presently known, was faced by many challenges that emanated from the ownership structure and governance (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2011). The company was even facing liquidation at one point and it took the intervention of a board of directors drawn from various stakeholders to restore the company back to profitability. In this case, an insight in the business, the challenges and the mechanisms used by the board of directors to overcome the challenges are discussed in detail.

Success of the Business

The company began from humble beginnings and became one of the most successful businesses in the time. Harry McNeely started it with a humble $ 5,000 capital that he had borrowed from his father in law (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2011). The company was called St. Paul Terminal Warehouse Company and it was in the business of warehouse and drayage.

The company was co-owned between McNeely and his brother in law, Paul Frenzel, who was also a fellow company executive. His shareholding was however, minor compared to that of McNeely. The company registered growth in asset-base general size of business.

A good measure of the success of any business is a close look at how the business has satisfied the stakeholder demands (Aronoff & Ward, 1996). A business has stakeholders who are the management, the government or the local authorities, customers, the owners or shareholders, suppliers to the business and the public at large.

The demands of each category of stakeholders are different and they are sometimes conflicting. A business must always try to rank the priorities of the businesses and ensure a balance in meeting the stakeholders’ demands.

For the St. Paul Terminal Warehouse Company, success can be measured by looking at how the company met its obligations to various stakeholders. It is the demand by the shareholders that the business grows so that their value is maximized. The company grew both in business and asset base.

It acquired real estates and was profitable. It was renamed Space Center and later Meritex due to its growth. An example of property bought by the company includes a plant in Whirlpool and land in Burlington among others (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2011). The business grew from the primary business activity of warehousing to include other business lines such as transportation and financial business.

The customer’s demands were met well by the company. The company produced quality goods and services to the customers. For instance, the customers were pleased by the acquisition of Quincy in Illinois by Space Center for distribution purposes since it was a measure to ensure safety and environmental stability (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2011). This was also a means of satisfying the obligations of the business to the public since the public requires that businesses should ensure environmental safety.

The business operated within the regulations of the government and thus it met its business obligations. It paid taxes and was not involved in unlawful businesses. To the management, it is obvious that they were well remunerated since they were also the owners of the business and it was doing well. An overall conclusion can therefore be made that the business was very successful since it met the obligations to the various stakeholders (Aronoff & Ward, 1996).

Mechanisms available to enhance relationships with stakeholders in order to improve strategic direction and performance of the company

There are various systems or mechanisms that an organization could use to ensure good relationship between stakeholders and to influence the strategic decisions and performance of a company. These mechanisms can be understood by having a clear understanding of the possible causes of conflicts of interest between stakeholders and ensuring that the causes of conflicts are avoided.

One mechanism and the most important are to put in place a professional management of a business. This is because professional managers do not have an interest in the business other than to work for the business. There is thus no conflict of interest between stakeholders (Aronoff & Ward, 1996).

Another mechanism is to have in place a board of directors that consist of members drawn from the various stakeholders. This board should be charged with formulation of policies regarding the business. The board should have representatives of all the stakeholders to ensure that the interests of various stakeholders are protected (Aronoff & Ward, 1996).

The decisions made by this board are supposed to be well balanced hence elimination of conflicts. In the Space Center Enterprises, it is evident that the establishment and implementation of a well-balanced board of directors was a big factor to the recovery of the family business.

After the establishment of a professional management team and a well-balanced board of directors, a system should be put in place that ensures that the management and the board of directors work towards the same goal. The management should not despise the board and likewise for the board. Each should respect the role of each other and work together in harmony (Aronoff & Ward, 1996).

Evaluation of performance of the board of directors for space center enterprises

The board of directors of the Space Centre Enterprises was successful in fulfilling its governance and dealing with the challenges it faced. This can be supported by facts from the case study. The biggest challenge that the board of directors faced was that of family interference in the affairs of the business.

The board made policies that would ensure that business decisions and family issues would not bring conflicts in the running of the family business. Issues such as career conflicts, dividend decisions and ownership structure and liquidity issues were solved once and for all (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2011).

When faced by the family tension between the two brothers who were owners and founders of the company, the board of directors maintained its calm and took measures to mitigate the effects of the tension between family members and in effect the non family members. The board was successful in these attempts and it managed to survive the division that followed.

When faced with the challenge of choosing the next CEO for the company after the retirement of Harry, the board ensured that it came up with the best CEO for the company. This was done through requiring Paddy to write plans he had for the family business (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2011). This was all in an attempt to ensure that the company got a visionary CEO. The board also had back up plans in case Paddy failed as the CEO, a fact that confirms the board was professional in its work.

The board also helped the company to survive a takeover bid by the CEO who wanted to impose leadership of the company. He followed Walt Richie’s decision that he wanted to retire and that he had chosen one of the people in the organization to succeed him. The board did not approve this and it planned for a buyout that was effective.

In an attempt to eliminate family issues in the business, the board decided to merge the two rival companies into one and initiate professional management into the business. These actions show that the board was successful in handling the challenges it faced in the business at various points.

Evaluation of Paddy’s qualification to succeed his father as CEO of Meritex

Paddy was qualified as CEO for Meritex Company. Paddy was a banker for ten years before he joined the family business. He was trained and experienced in banking issues such as loans and creations of credit. He was the youngest son of Harry junior and his names were Harry McNeely III. Paddy was his name too. It was less expected by the people and to Paddy himself that he would work in the family business at any time.

His father had let him decide his career and Paddy admitted that only fate had brought him to run the family business. Paddy joined the family business without a defined designation after a restructuring in the bank that he had been working for. It was at this time that he attended numerous meetings for and on behalf of the family business and this gave him the much-needed exposure (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2011).

When he joined the family business, Paddy was in the executive team but with no title and it was from there that he realized there was a long-term opportunity in the business. He decided to participate fully in the management in order to earn the trust of his father and to convince the board, which consisted of both family and non-family members that he had the potential to lead the company.

The vision for Paddy was to ensure that the business remained a family business and that it was professionally managed. With the help of other board members, Paddy managed to arrange a buyout programme to save the company from hereditary leadership. Through this, Paddy earned a leadership position in the company and he became the CEO for Space Center. The business name changed to Meritex.

The board made the decision to make Paddy the CEO after long consultations and considerations of his role and commitment in the family business (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2011). His father left the matter of choosing the next CEO squarely in the hands of the board hence Paddy was not an imposed CEO.

Accordingly, Paddy was well qualified as a replacement of his father. Primarily, Paddy had attended various meetings for the family business and he had shown the concern and passion he had for the business. Another reason that shows his suitability for the position is the fact that his father did not impose him.

His appointment and take over was executed in a transparent manner and was approved by the board and the shareholders. He had tabled plans for the future of the family the business, which impressed the board. He had also helped the company to manage a takeover bid in order to protect the company hence the board had confidence in him.

Another reason that can show that Paddy was qualified as the CEO for the family business was the fact that he understood the role of professional management in the business. He also had support from the family members although they left the task of choosing the company CEO to the board.

To cap the evidence that Paddy was qualified as CEO is the achievements he made in the company. He managed to lead the company to great growth heights and even made it win the ‘family business of the year’ award (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2011).


Family businesses are known to elicit unpleasant happenings and even cause family disintegration. This is because family issues and business are incompatible things. In the case of Space Center Enterprises, the business was facing a crisis but after separation of management of the business with family issues, the business recovered and became the award winning family business.

For family businesses to succeed, they must put mechanisms in place that ensure that conflicts in stakeholders’ interests are eliminated (Aronoff & Ward, 1996).

Space Center Enterprises faced various challenges and even filed for liquidation. The company was however saved by establishment of a well-balanced board of directors who were drawn from both the family and non-family shareholders. This went along way to ensure that there was no conflict of interest between the stakeholders and it minimized interference of family issues with the business (Aronoff & Ward, 1996).


Aronoff, C. & Ward, J. (1996). Family business governance: maximizing family and business potential. London: Family Enterprise Publisher.

Hitt, M., Ireland, R. & Hoskisson, R. (2011). Strategic management: Competitiveness and globalization, concepts and cases: 2011 custom edition. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

How to Enhance Listening Skills


Listening is a very significant skill that should be cultivated in every individual irrespective of age or role played in the society. This is because it touches on almost every aspect of life that necessitates communication: for instance, education, job or even family relationships.

Listening reduces chances of misunderstandings and conflicts, thereby improving relationships that are formed among people and enhancing individuals’ lives. Listening has also proved to be very essential in enhancing cooperation through fostering of aspects such as individual and corporate understanding, an issue that is very important.

In regard to job, listening skills enhance success through effective performance since people are able to understand each other’s needs and customer satisfaction is improved. In the business sector, effective listening enhances productivity and profitability, and in the education sector, it enhances learning as it allows adoption of ideas from all the people involved (Jean-Luc and Mandell 27). This paper gives an in-depth discussions of was through which listening skills can be improved.

Enhancing listening skills

Effective listening skills are significant. In order to understand the concept of enhancing listening skills, it is important to define what effective listening entails. Effective listening involves the process of gathering all the essential details of the information being communicated at any given time.

It is a process that is only achieved under some circumstances: for instance, an ideal environment. It requires maximum attention to all aspects of communication, especially facial and other nonverbal expressions. Asking questions also contributes greatly to effective listening as it ensures that the listener is at par with the speaker and understands whatever is being communicated. It is through effective listening that an individual is able to comprehend information, retain it and respond appropriately to different situations.

There are various ways that have been put forth in an effort to enhance listening skills or rather ensure that effective listening is maintained in any form of conversation irrespective of the concepts being discussed.

The efforts aimed at enhancing listening skills work by the principle of eliminating, or rather reducing the challenges that go hand in hand with listening; that is, the factors that hinder effective listening. According to Cioffi (par 6), listening skills could be enhanced through personal discipline among the listeners: for instance, through willingness and determination as well as avoiding any form of distraction that could affect attention and concentration.

This could be achieved by maintaining a relaxed mode and putting aside any other aspect that may promote wandering of thoughts. Another simple way of enhancing listening skills is being focused and looking at the speaker’s eyes and other bodily expressions as a way of controlling thoughts and avoiding divided attention. An individual should also avoid interrupting the speaker in the middle of a talk and instead let him/ her finish giving out the discussion.

This is because a concept that could be disturbing at that particular time could be covered before the discussion is over, thus clearing the doubts. It is therefore advisable for people to ask questions once the discussion is over and still one has some contentious issues. Interrupting to offer help is usually viewed to be advantageous, but in the real sense, it affects listening in a negative way as it interferes with the flow of conversation.

Even though it is not easy, a person should never be emotional if listening is to be effective. This is because emotions distorts proper reasoning and could hinder understanding. Rather than taking a discussion as a competition where listeners aim at impressing others by showing that they know a concept, debating should be done on a separate setting where it has no effect on listening.

One should try and affirm points of agreement while at that same time avoid dismissing statements of contention unless the issue is really burning and cannot wait, or failure to raise a disagreement at the moment would mislead the majority of people.

Listening is mostly confused with hearing but there is usually more to listening than just hearing. Unlike hearing, listening requires that there is maximum concentration to ensure that what is heard is remembered and retained for the longest period of time possible. Asking questions is also an aspect that is highly advisable as a way of enhancing listening skills.

This is because it plays a great role in clearing doubts that may exist between the speaker and the listener and also ensures that they both move at the same pace as opposed to where there would be limited understanding that would in turn bring about problems in comprehending important concepts. People should always be open-minded when listening as opposed to having an answer in mind.

Open mindedness allows people to get new ideas, thus promoting effective learning of various concepts since one anticipates acquiring new knowledge, which could only be possible through listening. It is also good to always learn to give others a chance to air their views and opinions in regard to a given concept no matter how knowledgeable one may be in the given area rather than formulating immediate responses as a way of pride or impressing others.

A good listener should make sure he/she listens to the inner self through summarizing (in the mind), what is communicated. This can be shown through aspects like nodding either in concurrence or in protesting, which are clues that show that a person is actively present or involved.

This behavior is not only beneficial to the listener but also satisfying and empowering to the speaker as it assures him or her that an impact has been created. Another essential factor that is mostly neglected by many is that of ensuring that the environment is conducive for maximum attention: for example, doing away with anything that would create noise or any other physical distraction.

All the above efforts require that a person has both the will and patience to listen and learn. This is, however, worthwhile as effective listening is associated with long-term advantages including appropriate communication that in turn allows success in the general life of individuals in the competitive business world (Tronshaw (par 2).


It is evident, from the discussion above, that listening skills are essential in our everyday undertakings. They should therefore be enhanced under all circumstances irrespective of the costs involved since the benefits associated with effective listening surpass the problems associated with lack of effective listening to a very large extent.

The most important factor that enhance effective listening is, however, maintaining maximum attention by avoiding any aspect that may in one way or the other reduce chances of concentration or rather make an individual’s mind to wander.

Works Cited

Cioffi, Rebecca. “Importance of Listening Skills on Job Performance”. Ehow.2010. June 6, 2011.

Jean-Luc, Nancy and Mandell, Charlotte. Listening. New York: Fordham Univ Press, 2007

Tronshaw, Oubria. “How to Enhance Listening Skills”. Ehow. 2011. June 6, 2011.

Moral Dilemma’s in the Breakdown 1968 and the Missing Person

In Breakdown 1968, the author shows the moral breakdown of Mark. He is travelling with his pregnant wife and son, Hans to Los Angeles where he is planning to look for work. The car breaks down at a remote gas station and he has to get a new alternator. He hitches a ride from a man and two women who are part of a film crew in a hearse. They encourage him to leave his wife and kid and join them to live a better life.

They manage to convince him. He takes up the suggestion and actually abandons his wife and child. He is completely selfish at this time, thinking of himself and accomplishing his dreams. He looks at his family feeling that they are trapping him. He is unable to reach for his dreams.

He wants to join the entertainment industry and make it big. He is not thinking of his family and how they will get out of the remote gas station and go home. While in the car however, he starts feeling guilty and tells them he has to get out and go back to his family. He gets to a parts store when he realizes he does not have enough money. He is forced to call home and ask for help from his parents something he hates.

Mark is unstable and not happy with the life he is living. The film crew offered him what he perceives as a way of escape and he was tempted to take it. He was on the journey of selfishness and abandoning his family but he redeemed himself at the end and came to his senses. The story shows us the moral failure of a man and his self-redemptive actions.

Priest Leo experiences moral failure as Mark in the story of the Missing person. Priest Leo is convinced he is supposed to be a priest and he patiently works in the parish. However after the death of the old priest, he is moved to a parish where things are falling apart. The nuns have lost patience in following the rules of the church. Leo feels lost, moving from parish to parish till he meets Jerry, a man employed by the parish to assist in fundraising.

Jerry causes Leo to change and condone actions that he should not. Jerry raises money through unethical means. He lies that the parish is supporting the disabled, orphans, lepers and even earthquake victims so that they can get financial support. On these meetings with the rich people, Leo refuses to look at them in the eyes as he knows what he is doing is wrong.

Jerry and Leo go to a trip in Vegas where Leo meets a woman called Sandra who he sleeps with going totally against the priest teachings. Before he joined the priesthood, Leo had marveled at the helplessness of love. He had loved someone till he almost did not join the priesthood. This shows that Leo had this inherent weakness for women which he had just suppressed.

At the end of the story, Leo has found himself and is no longer lost or missing. When Sandra is sleeping on the bed and she cries out, Leo tells her it is ok since he is there. He is now at peace with who he is and he is not going anywhere.

The difference between Mark and the Priest is that at the end, Mark refuses to abandon his family. However the Priest does not go back to the parish and the priesthood. Leo has found happiness elsewhere.

The Pesticide Problem and Proposed Solution

Part I. Conservation and Preservation


Though the two terms are often used interchangeably, they have different meanings. Conservation refers to the use of a resource in a way that such resource is not put to waste.

Conservationists therefore promote applications of the subject elements for developments on the condition that the existence of such elements will be protected in the process of application activities. Environmental conservation for example involves the use of environmental resources without causing harm to the resource or interfering with other people or living things that depend on such resources.

Cases such as exploration of land resources without clearing vegetation that will have effects on animals which depends on such vegetation for shelter and food among other effects will therefore be in line with conservation factors. Preservation on the other hand refers to the maintenance of status quo. Under preservation believes the subject element is to be left in its existing state and protected from any form of interference.

Preservation wit respect to the environment therefore entails the protection of the environment from any form of activity for fear of the amount of harm that such activities can cause. Environmental preservation will therefore call for abstinence of any form of activity that affects the environment, whether or not such activities will have a negative impact on the environment. It will therefore for example prevent an economic undertaking that would ensure exploitation of the environment with conservative approaches (Sustainable, n.d.).

Side of Inclination

I would support conservation approach instead of preservation of the environment. My opinion is based on the fact that the level of advancement of technology can allow for exploration of resources such as underground oil without significant interference of the environment. A preservative approach will on the contrary just hinder economic developments (Berg, n.d.).

Part II. Risk assessment paper- Malathion pesticide


The city of Genericville is faced with a problem of a number of infections that is spread by mosquitoes. The high number of the vector is facilitated by the city’s feature of a river that runs right through its centre. One of such infections, “west Nile virus”, is a dangerous infection of the nervous system and has high cases of fatalities (Axia, n.d.).

A proposal has been made for the adoption of a pesticide to help in the eradication of the mosquitoes. There have however been debates and a final decision is necessary. This work seeks to discuss the risk management with respect to the mosquitoes’ infection and possible effects of using the pesticide. The work will identify the risk, available response, exposure and risk characterization.

Hazard identification

The city of Genericville has a geographical feature that is seemingly its basis for economic stability. A river that runs through the city is its centre of tourism attraction which is one of the city’s main sources of revenues. The river banks is also an essential component of the city as it provide food for animals such as birds and the fish that lives in the river.

Unfortunately, the river banks facilitate breeding of a mosquito species that transmits a number of diseases. The existence of the mosquito species is therefore a hazard to the city in a wide range of ways. The immediate and severe hazard that is posed by the breeding and the existence of the mosquito species is the human related diseases that are transmitted by the mosquitoes.

The fatality of such infections such as the “west Nile virus” has for instance been identified as a health hazard in the city with an almost five percent casualty and significantly recognized number of fatalities (Axia, n.d.). The identified infection of birds is another threat to the city’s ecosystem taking into consideration the energy flow along food chains that could mean transfer of such infections to a large number of animal species.

This has however not been proved but remains to be a possible threat. There is another extensive threat that the mosquito infections pose to the city. Being majorly dependent on tourism, the threat of infections to the area’s visitor may reduce the number of tourists in the city which will mean reduced revenue for both the city and its citizens who depend on tourism for their living.

There would therefore be an indirect threat of increased level of unemployment and poverty in the region. The city could also suffer from economic setbacks if sanctions are made against it following fears of spread of the infections from its mosquitoes. The problem of mosquito infections is therefore a significant hazard in the town with a wide range of negative impacts that calls for measures of control (Axia, n.d.).

Dose response

The impacts of the mosquito hazard have called for a measure to use a pesticide to control the breeding and the ultimate population of the mosquitoes in the city. After suffering from the identified nervous disease that killed a relative, one of residents of the city has agreed to fund a program for the control measure. This activity is to be undertaken in the form of aerial spray coupled with a subsequent use of the same pesticide on the ground to ensure a complete eradication of the insects (Axia, n.d.).


The application of the pesticide as proposed will have a wide level of exposure to the mosquitoes as well as other organisms in the town. The spraying approach will for instance ensure a wide coverage of the drug to include the atmosphere. This will mean that a wide variety of materials will get into contact with the pesticide.

Its mixture with air would for example mean its presence even in people’s houses as well as being absorbed into masses such as water bodies and plants. The entire ecosystem of the city will therefore be exposed to the pesticide. This would imply a comprehensive approach to countering the mosquito population from their breeding ground to their hiding places. The ground application of the pesticide would also ensure that all breeding sites for the mosquitoes are identified and the insects controlled (Axia, n.d.).

Risk characterization

Though the infections that are transmitted by the mosquitoes are a hazard to the society, there could be a substantial number of risks involved in the application of the pesticide as well as its mode of use. Though arguments for safety of the use are being advocated for in the long run, it is clear that the use of the pesticide has some risks to the city, at least for some time.

The first evident risk of the use of the pesticide involves the general toxic effects of pesticides which poses risks to the city. The extensive approach of spraying could at the same time pose a risk of its high concentration in the atmosphere that could be dangerous.

This threat would at the same time be transmitted to organisms that live in water as well as under the earth’s surface in case of rains. There is also the risk of ignorance that could expose people to the dangers of the pesticide for failing to comply with safety regulations over the application of the drug. The use of the drug is similarly feared to carry risks of infections that like the nervous system infection transmitted by mosquito could be fatal to the city’s population.

There is also a possibility that the use of the pesticide could kill organisms that through their feeding habits have been helping to control the mosquitoes’ population which could in the long run pose more threats of the mosquito’s infection when their breeding resumes after the use of the pesticide. This could also affect the city’s tourism attraction elements which includes fish. It will also pose a threat to the entire ecosystem following food chain energy flow (Axia, n.d.).


The use of the pesticide may seem to be effective in controlling the population of mosquitoes for the control of their infections. There is however a chance that the people who are to be protected by this move might as well be fatally endangered besides destruction of the entire ecosystem. I would therefore vote against the use of the insecticide on the ground that educative measures to avoid contact with mosquitoes can on the contrary be a safer idea.


Axia. (n.d.). Preservation and conservation. (Attached document-MS word)

Berg, L. (n.d.). Visualizing environmental science. New York, NY: John Wiley and sons.

Sustainable. (n.d.). Earth, conservation & preservation. Retrieved on May 6, 2011 from:

The Relationship between China and Vietnam in 1979


Vietnam had been a close ally of the People’s Republic of China in the 1960s and early 1970s. Due to their cordial relationship, Vietnam always received both financial and material support from China during its time of need (Womuck 67).

For example, during Vietnam’s conflicts with its foes such as the US, China sent its troops to Vietnam to assist with the war. However, the relationship between the two countries later deteriorated in late 1970s (Womuck 72). In 1979, the relationship between the two countries degenerated into a war that greatly affected the financial stability and military strength of both countries.

The deterioration of the relationship between China and Vietnam is partly attributed to Vietnam’s failure to show gratitude for Chinese assistant. The collapse of the bilateral relationship between China and USSR also contributed to the strained relationship between China and Vietnam in 1979 (Feng 78). This paper analyzes the 1979 relationship between China and Vietnam as well as the cause of the strained relationship.

Sino-Vietnam War in 1979

Prior to the 1979 war between China and Vietnam, the two countries had a positive relationship (Feng 79). They cooperated in many ways including military support in time of need. Following the violation of the principles that formed the basis of the cordial relationship between the two countries, their association or friendship began to decline in 1975. China particularly felt that Vietnam had failed to reciprocate in their friendship and thus it needed to revenge (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 321).

External factors such as the collapse in the bilateral relationship between China and the Soviet Union also contributed to the conflict between China and Vietnam. The conflict culminated in a war between the two countries in 1979. The Sino-Vietnam war lasted for about three weeks and was characterized by severe casualties on both sides (DeRouen 57). Each country lost several troops and civilians. Several factors led to the Sino-Vietnam war and this can be explained as follows.

Causes of the Sino-Vietnam War

One of the main reasons that led to the conflict or war between China and Vietnam in 1979 was the manner in which the Vietnamese authorities treated the Chinese ethnic minority that lived within Vietnamese territory (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 325). The Chinese ethnic minority in Vietnam were not entitled to equal treatment as other Vietnamese citizens. They were considered outsiders and thus did not deserve to live in the country under the same conditions as the Vietnamese citizens.

In 1978, the Vietnamese authorities forced the Chinese ethnic minorities to move back to their country (Zhang 856). China was particularly angered by Vietnam’s decision to repatriate the Chinese. China considered Vietnam’s move an act of betrayal and decided to explore alternative ways to ravage against Vietnam (Zhang 857). Consequently, China stopped to assist Vietnam through financial and military support.

The withdrawal of Chinese support forced Vietnam to explore alternative options of getting support during its time of need. This led to the signing of a “cooperation and friendship pact” (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 326) between Hanoi and Moscow. The cooperation between Vietnam and the USSR only served to increase the tension between China and Vietnam.

In the countdown to the 1979 war, Vietnam and the Soviet Union signed a mutual defense treaty in November 1978 (Elleman). It is the signing of this pact that made Vietnam the target of military action by China. The Chinese authority felt that the pact was actually aimed at limiting their military strength and influence in the region. Besides, the relationship between China and the Soviet Union was at the verge of collapse thus it was not in the interest of China to watch two of its foes unite (Elleman).

One of the indications that the Vietnam-Soviet pact was aimed at China can be traced to its sixth clause. The cause stated that “Vietnam and the USSR would immediately consult each other either if attacked or threatened with attack” (Feng 76). The aim of the consultations was to eliminate the threat of attack. The protocols of the treaty also allowed the USSR military to access or use the airfields and ports owned by Vietnam.

In Chinese authorities’ view, the Soviet Union appeared to have succeeded in surrounding China diplomatically by signing the pact with Vietnam (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 327).

Thus the Chinese authorities believed that the only way to stop the insurgence of the Soviet Union was to break the treaty between it and Vietnam. In order to achieve this objective, China had to attack Vietnam in February 1979 (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 328). Vietnam on its part claimed that it opted to form an alliance with the Soviet Union in order to avert Chinese adventurist acts.

However, Beijing did not believe in Vietnam’s claim in regard to their pact with USSR. They instead interpreted the treaty as a strategy used by the Soviet Union to pressurize them to reconsider their stance on the 1950 Sino-Soviet Treaty (Womuck 87). This means that the Soviet Union intended to use its treaty with Vietnam to force China to renew the 1950 Sino-Soviet treaty which was characterized by inequality.

It was apparent that if the Soviet managed to establish a foothold in Southern Asia by forming an alliance with Vietnam, it would be in a position to flank China on its southern and northern borders. Such a move would enable the Soviet Union to have power over China by weakening their military ability (DeRouen 62).

According to the Chinese authorities, the Soviet Union would use their military strength to force China to either renew or renegotiate the terms and conditions that formed the basis of the 1950 Sino-Soviet treaty. Beijing was however, determined to terminate its relationship with the Soviet Union especially under the 1950 Sino-Soviet treaty.

Renmin Ribco’s warning that the Soviet was using Vietnam against China after “trying and failing to use Cuba to exert diplomatic pressure against the United States” (Womuck 88) is one of the indications of China’s deep concern over the Soviet-Vietnam treaty. Renmin’s view was further reinforced by Beijing’s claim that Moscow’s eventual goal was to have the entire Indochina in its control.

This means that successful implementation of Soviet Union’s policies in Vietnam would enable the Soviet government to establish strategic diplomatic success as well as military power over China. Thus China was highly concerned about the Soviet-Vietnam treaty since its success would pose a great threat to its national security and sovereignty in the subsequent months.

With the signing of the Soviet-Vietnam treaty, the relationship between China and Vietnam worsened day by day (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 329). China having realized the danger posed by the treaty, had to move quickly and find a way of weakening the relationship between USSR and Vietnam.

Part of China’s strategic move was to form an alliance with its former enemies in order to boost its military strength as well as the chances of obtaining any material or financial need at the time of its need. Consequently, China officially formed an alliance with the United States in 1979 (DeRouen 63). The signing of the Sino-American alliance in 1979 had two implications.

First, it worsened the relationship between China, Vietnam and the Soviet Union. This is because the United States was a common foe of both Vietnam and the USSR. Thus its alliance with China was not in the interest of both Vietnam and the USSR (DeRouen 64). Second, the Soviet Union just like China became concerned over its security in the future following the signing of the Sino-America alliance.

Of great concern to the Soviet Union was the possibility of facing a two front war. This means that the chances of the USSR being attacked simultaneously by the America-led NATO troops from the west and Chinese troops from the east increased (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 331). In the event of such attack, the Soviet Union could have easily collapsed since it would not be able to stand the joint military action from the two countries.

Vietnam’s Inversion of Cambodia

As a response to the Sino-America alliance, the Soviet Union increased its support for Vietnam in regard to its (Vietnam) attack on Cambodia (Zhang 860). Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge’s regime was a close ally of China. The Chinese backed the Khmer Rouge administration thus Vietnam having parted ways with China was uncomfortable with Cambodia (Zhang 861). It was therefore in the interest of both Vietnam and the Soviet Union to attack Cambodia.

Their intention was to weaken China’s influence in the region. Besides, Vietnam’s victory in the war with Cambodia would mean that China was weak and was not able to defend its allies. In order to demonstrate its military ability, China had to intervene in the conflict between Vietnam and Cambodia by attacking Vietnam (Zhang 862). However, China could not attack Vietnam directly in regard to the war in Cambodia. Consequently, border conflicts that had not been settled between China and Vietnam resurfaced.

This means that the inversion of the Chinese military in the “disputed Sino-Vietnamese territory” (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 335) was an indirect strategy of weakening Vietnamese military in order to stop their encroachment in Cambodia. These trends indicate that the border war between China and Vietnam was not just because of Vietnam’s attack on Cambodia.

The power struggle between China and the USSR also played an important role. This is because the USSR’s support to Vietnam was aimed at defeating Cambodia which was a close ally of China (Feng 91). On the other hand, China focused on weakening Vietnamese military power in order to protect Cambodia. Consequently, the conflict between Vietnam and Cambodia was widely viewed as a proxy war between China and the USSR. Each country wanted to demonstrate to the other its ability to protect its ally.

The Continued USSR’s Support to Vietnam

As was discussed earlier, the Soviet-Vietnamese treaty meant that the Soviet and Vietnam would support each other in the event of a war. China on its part did not perceive any threat from Vietnam on its own. This is because Vietnam was relatively small both in terms of population size and its military strength (Womuck 113).

However, China became weary of Vietnam’s threat following continued support from the Soviet Union. The Soviet government had supplied Vietnam with a lot of military equipment which included munitions, aircrafts, tanks and missiles. Besides, the Soviet government had sent “between 5000 to 8000 advisers to Vietnam” (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 337) to assist with planning for military action against its enemies.

The USSR initially thought that supporting Vietnam with military equipment will deter China from attacking it. However, the USSR’s hopes were dashed since China eventually attacked Vietnam in 1979. Some scholars argue that the attack could not have taken place if the USSR did not send so many advisors to Vietnam (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 337). This attack was particularly significant since it put the relationship between Vietnam and the Soviet Union in test.

According to the Soviet-Vietnam treaty, the USSR was expected to send its troops to Vietnam and help them defeat China. However, this was not possible due to logistics reasons. Due to the large distance between USSR and Vietnam, the former could not have easily intervened during the war. The only practical option was to intervene through China or other allies of United States which was not possible due to the strained relationships between USSR and China as well as US (DeRouen 94).

When the USSR failed to support Vietnam during the war, China claimed victory for having managed to destroy the treaty between Vietnam and the Soviet Union. China demonstrated to Vietnam that it could not be protected by its ally, the Soviet Union. The Soviet-Vietnam treaty had thus failed due to USSR’s inability to support Vietnam.

The end of the war between China and Vietnam in 1979 did not help in settling their differences. The two countries continued to have a strained relationship in 1979. For instance, the conflict over the Sino-Vietnam common border remained unresolved (DeRouen 115). The mistrust between the two countries worsened and this reduced the chances of improving the relationship between China and Vietnam.


The above discussion indicates that China and Vietnam had strained relationship in 1979. China and Vietnam enjoyed cordial relationships in the 1960s and early 1970s. The deterioration of the relationship between China and Vietnam degenerated into a war in 1979.

Both countries lost thousands of troops and civilians. The main causes of the war and weak relationship between China and Vietnam included the following. First, China wanted to punish Vietnam for failing to reciprocate in their relationship (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 324).

Vietnam repatriated Chinese ethnic minority within its territory and this angered China. Second, the border conflicts between the two countries led to the 1979 war. Finally, the alliance between Vietnam and the Soviet Union was a security threat to China (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 324). Thus China went to war with Vietnam in order to destroy the Soviet-Vietnam treaty. These factors did not just cause the war but were also the main contributors to the strained relationship between China and Vietnam in 1979.

Works Cited

DeRouen, Karl. Defense and security. New York: ABC-CLIO, 2005. Print.

Elleman, Bruce. “Sino-Soviet Relations and the February 1979 Sino-Vietnam conflict. 20 April 1996. Web. 7 June 2011.

Feng, Huiyan. Chinese startegic cultural and foreign policy decision-making. New York: Routledge , 2007. Print.

Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. “Assessing Sino-Vietnamese relations through the management of contentious issues.” Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 6 (2004): 320-745.

Womuck, Drantly. China and Vietnam . London: Cambridge University Press , 2006. Print.

Zhang, Xiaoming. “China’s 1979 war with Vietnam.” China Quarterly 7 (2005): 852-896.

Stereotyping and Its Effects on Intergroup Relations

Stereotyping refers to when people have a collective perception towards some people in a group. In intergroup relations stereotyping causes people to be misguided about each other.

This is because the individuals in one group judge the other group members according to the encounters they have had with people who are from the same background. Schwartz (2007) points out that this collective opinion about others is wrong because a nasty experience involving one member of a given group cannot gauge the entire group simply because few individuals cannot represent a community or a race.

While analyzing groups its important to consider individual character because stereotyping can lead to misunderstanding and miscommunication. This implies that intergroup relations should take place at a personal level and the weaknesses of one individual should not be used to gauge the entire group.

Levels of Discrimination

Discrimination is the denial of equal opportunity to someone, just because he/she does not share common characteristics or views with you. For instance an employer can deny equal employment opportunity to women hence the bias is based on their gender. Gender discrimination is the highest level of discrimination across the globe because most communities do not reckon that women are equally competent like their male counterparts.

Racial discrimination is the other level of discrimination because people of specific races mainly inhabit the geographical regions and thus, people from other races are biased because they are thought to be inferior because of their looks. For instance Africans may be denied equal employment opportunities not because they are not qualified but because of their race.

The third level of discrimination revolves around religion. This is whereby some people think that their religion is more sacred than others are and thus, assume that other religions are false. This causes people who belong to that religion to be isolated and denied equal opportunities; for instance, Muslims can be denied the freedom of assembly in a Christian nation because they are thought to be terrorists.

Meaning of Robert E. Park’s statement

The statement of Robert concerning the fate of a marginalized person suggests that the victim struggles to be what the society expects him to be while retaining his identity. This happens when one interacts with people from different cultural background because he/she has to adapt to the culture of the host. This causes a lot of confusion because in as much as he/she wants to adopt the new culture he/she remains attached to his/her cultural background.

When one adopts new culture, it is because he/she wants to be accepted by the majority with a different cultural background. From another perspective, the statement suggests that the fate of the marginalized person rests on the decisions made by the majority. This is because the majority groups tend to ignore marginalized groups and thus, they are denied equal opportunities.

Edna Bonacich’s Split-Labor-Market Theory

The Split-Labor-Market Theory states that the scramble for employment opportunities lies along ethnic and racial lines. This is because there are people from two diverse groups that are competing for the same job opportunities. Moreno (2006) argues that one community does not need hefty salaries and this causes the other community to be eliminated from the job market because they demand for more incentives.

The eliminated group is bitter towards the group that requires less salary because if it were not for them they would have captured the opportunities. In the end, the employer benefits the most and he/she is free from any blame because all he wants is subsidized labor costs. The community that demands for more pay argues that they are more qualified than their counterparts are, and thus low salaries imply that the skills they posses are not important.


Moreno, D. P. (2006). Black Americans and Organized Labor, A New History New York: Louisiana State University Press.

Schwartz, A. (2007, December 20). Stereotyping and its Damaging Effects. Retrieved from

Childhood Obesity

Causes of Childhood obesity

A number of factors can be blamed for the occurrence of obesity in children; there is no one single thing that can be blamed on an individual; however in most cases, the condition appear when two or more such factors play their role, the following are the main factors:

Lifestyle adopted by modern children: Modern foods, mostly junk foods are freely available for children; this has resulted to a changed eating habits to such foods that increasing the rate of child obesity. On the other hand, children are now engaging more in in-house games using computers, video games, and television, they do not have the chance to exercise their body and muscles, and this increases their chances of being obese since they do not burn calories they have consumed.

Genetic and hormonal: Children’s genetic and hormonal factors influences how bodies accumulate fats on the body; where some people have the tendency of accumulating more fat than other peoples accumulate. When child has a higher tendency of fat accumulation, then chances of becoming obese are high.

Familial and nutritional: Closely related to genetic factors, some families have the tendency of accumulating more fat than others accumulate, as much as this may be from biological making, it has been influenced greatly by the behavior within a family. Obesity can be seen to run down a family, because of diet and nutritional issues in the family setting. If a family engages in inappropriate eating habits, then children in the family are likely to suffer from obesity.

Psychological and physiological factors: Children as they grow develop some food likings, when they have the cash to buy the foods, then they are likely to eat junk that might cause a higher consumption of fats causing obesity.

Solutions to childhood obesity

It is better to prevent than cure, obesity can be prevented in the county through the intervention of policy makers, parents and other stakeholders. To address the issue of obesity in the society, a county’s health department has the role of enforcing rules and regulations as well as creating awareness to the people on how they can change their eating habits for the benefits of their children.

The country should ensure that children have enough playing ground, at school or village level so as they can use plays to exercise their bodies. Parents and junk food joints should be held responsible of children health; this can be through regulations that control advertisement of junk foods in the county and ensuring fresh and health foods are sold in the joints.

Every country should have a legislation that aimed at addressing the issue of obesity; it should;

Parent’s sensitization on good feeding process to their children, this will be offended in pregnancy clinic where feeding mechanisms of a child before birth and after both will be advocated.
Creating awareness on the dangers brought about by being obese, both children and adults obesity: knowledge is power thus when embarked on, it is likely to make people change their behavior
Develop guiding brochures to be given alongside birth notification certificate to newborn. The brochures will advise the parent on right feeding process that he should adopt; the material offered should be a method of aggressive anti-obese campaigns
Incorporate obesity cases in health insurance policies: this will assist the country suffering population to get proper medical attention for general improvement of their conditions

To attain the above objectives, there is need for corporation among all stakeholders involved. Parents should be given the mandate of ensuring that theory children are fed in the right way, they should ensure that food eaten by a child whether when with the parent or not is the right kind.

Capital Punishment


Capital punishment is used to execute criminals and suppress political dissent terms of murder, espionage, and treason. In the most historical records and practices, punishment was used as a way of enforcing justice. They used different ways to punish different extends of crime. They could stone person to death, boil to death, crucifixion, using a gun, burning, slow slicing, and neck lacing to death. Crimes which resulted into death penalty varied from one society to another.

In some, sexual crimes such as rape, adultery, incest, and sodomy qualified for a death penalty while others included religious crimes such as apostasy in Islamic nations, and human and drug trafficking. In military, it included offenses such as cowardice, insubordination, and mutiny (Banks, 2004).


Those against capital punishment are known as abolitionists. They believe that death penalty is not a legal system of punishing crimes. They otherwise argue that life imprisoned without parole can replace death penalty and is able to keep the society safe from criminals.

They say that there are greater chances of killing innocent people who were mistaken for the crime, discrimination in the legal system, and poor people who can’t access to quality legal help. They believe that killing at any chance either in war or defense is morally wrong (Braswell, 2011).

There is also a movement that supports capital punishment. They are known as retentionists. They support justice in terms of social utility. They believe that justice can only prevail when a criminal is punished in an equal way to the crime committed.

They say that if a person murders an entire family or terrorist blows up a building, it is only right to save the lives of innocent people than that of the murderer. If left alive he might as well kill again. Philosopher Emmanuel Kant (1724-1804) supports the law of retaliation where the punishment equalizes the offense (Braswell, 2011).


In favor of capital punishment

Retribution; which supports that criminals or wrongdoers should be punished in a way that deserves the crime committed. Deterrence; argues that death penalty help prevent or reduce the cases of murder. Rehabilitation; gives chances to the criminals to repent and change without taking them back to the society but preparing them for the death penalty.

Prevention of re-offending; many people believe that a murderer should be killed at once to prevent him from killing again. Even though not in the society, he can kill those in prison too. Closure and vindication; some people think that death penalty will help relieve the family out of revenge.

Incentives for helping the police; instead of using death penalty, the police tend to reduce the incentives to life imprisonment to take advantage of doing further investigations. Japanese argument; they support capital punishment on the basis that bad things will be paid in bad ways (Pollock, 2009).

Against the capital punishment

Some people believe that human life is of great value and no one should be deprived of it despite the offence committed. Everyone has a right to live. It is better and more worth to keep a criminal for a life sentence to suffer enough to pay his crimes than to take away his life at once. There may be other causes of murder which are unpreventable such as those committed by insane people and emotional murders.

It is also not evident that death penalty is better in preventing or reducing murder cases than life imprisonment. The innocent will find themselves being prosecuted for things they did not do. Death penalty should be avoided to allow further investigations. The way the death penalty is carried out is not fair enough to the criminals. They sometimes wait for long before being executed. Crimes like adultery do not match the punishment of death penalty (Pollock, 2008).


Capital punishment is not good because it brutalizes society, laws and the state by increasing the number of murder rates causing uncertainty everywhere. This ruins the relationship between the state and its citizens. Capital punishment is also unnecessary since there are better ways of punishing criminals such as life imprisonment to keep the society in order and at peace.

It becomes very expensive especially when it comes to innocent people, unfair treatments, and discrimination to the accused. Most of the religious views are also against capital punishment.


Capital punishment should be avoided at all cost because it provides more harm than benefit. There is no crime that matches death penalty because the suffering of a long time provides the best punishment.


Banks, C. (2004). Criminal justice ethics: theory and practice. Bullhead City, AZ: SAGE.

Pollock, J. (2008). Ethical dilemmas and decisions in criminal justice. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Pollock, J. (2009). Ethical dilemmas and decisions in criminal justice. Ney York, NY: Lightning Source

Braswell, M. (2011). Justice, crime, and ethics. New York, NY: Elsevier

Popular culture and daily life. Electric Shadows by Xiao Jiang


Popular culture refers to a lot of aspects that we might encounter in our society. In this case, it can be the totality of ideas or other images that we might encounter as time goes by. Through popular culture that might be portrayed from our attitudes or perspectives, individuals are likely to come to an informal consensus that ends up being the mainstream of the society. It is undeniable that popular culture is mostly influenced by various things in the society.

This can be either through media that will end up having an influence on everybody’s life as time goes by. As a matter of fact, many people are influenced by such turn of events as time goes by (Storey 12). In this case, this is possible from the happenings that might be seen or experienced. There are some people who have referred to popular culture as the culturedness of the society. As far as popular culture is concerned, it can also be used to mean mass consumption in relation to the word culture.

Various people argue that popular culture is what is left behind after we have had various experiences and events that come from the totality of ideas. This therefore leads to an informal consensus based on the images that we have seen from a given encounter. It should be known that there are various forces and relations that draw people to certain things and this can be in relation to popular culture.

The authentic culture of different individuals can also be defined and described as culture but this can always be problematic (Storey 34). It has been argued that popular culture is always changing because of the events and images that we will be exposed to which is acceptable. This means that it constantly occurs in a unique way over a given period of time. In this case, it implies that it is purely unptrediactable.

As far as general popular culture is concerned, it can be formed from eddies and currents that occur. Most of them are always interdependent which will therefore instill certain values in the society thereby influencing it. As a matter of fact, some of the society’s institutions are also influenced in one way or the other through these events. It can be agreed that popular culture is very influential and this means that the public is likely to follow what is happening.

This will therefore end up being the basis upon which certain broad spectrums in the society are looked upon. The elements of popular culture have a unique power that will always amaze the public in a broad way (Storey 25). This means that popular culture does a lot of things to people in their lives. In this case, people are likely to incorporate popular culture in their lives as time goes by. This means that events that have occurred will ultimately influence their lives in a broad way.


As far as this paper is concerned, there are certain characters whose lives have been affected by events in one way or the other. In this case, most of these are texts or cultural forms that are always important in their lives. The characters lives can be changed as the story progresses and this will always be based on events that have happened. In this case, popular culture and daily life will be well explained by the film electric shadows.

This film has characters whose life is changed by the tragic turn of events in one way or the other. As a matter of fact, this is as a result of what they like doing in their lives (Storey 56). Because of these experiences, the film seems to be saying that popular culture influences our lives in a broad way based on the experiences of the characters in the film.

The story in the film revolves around a small town cinema. In this case, it is so heartwarming to tell the influence that the small town cinema had on the two characters. As far as the story is concerned, both characters are said to have grown up with the big screen. In linking up this, we can say that popular culture ultimately plays out here based on their origin from the small town. We can therefore say that the big screen played a big role in shaping up the characters because they had something in common.

This does not mean that popular culture is brought about by commonality but by the change of events (Storey 23). It is interesting to know that the two characters later on meet under unusual circumstances away from their town. Therefore, we can easily say that such circumstances that come by chance as far as the story is concerned end up being the basis upon which popular culture is built upon.

Both characters love movies and big screens and this are events that shape up popular culture. Dabing has a job of delivering milk but it is said that he has a craving for nights at the movies. As a matter of fact, he crashes into bricks while he is rushing to the movie theatre.

This event might have happened as an accident but from the story it has a different meaning. While he is trying to pick up himself, there is another woman who also happens to be a movie lover who then changes the whole story. In this case, he picks up a brick and hits him on the head which leads him to a hospital.

On the other hand, while this is pitiful for the young man, he ends up loosing his job with the boss expecting him to pay for the bicycle. This is a happening or an image that can be said to have an influence on the character thereby changing his life. Therefore, this is the basis upon which popular culture is built upon. This can be either from the characters life or other people around him who might have witnessed the events.

The young man thinks that he has finally got the person who caused him a lot of pain but the lady gives him keys with another job of feeding her fish. This therefore leads to a new turn of events because the lady seems to have a diary. All in all, we can agree that this is an important text that has had an impact on the characters life.

As a matter of fact, this is the strength of popular culture where an individual seems to have been changed by the turn of the events that are happening in his life. In a broad perspective, we can say that the character tries to use popular culture in his life by reading the diary that he found in the lady’s room.

This is because people can always use popular culture based on the events that they encounter in their lives. Xuehua is another character who has a passion for movies although she has another job. After finding herself pregnant, she goes through a lot of stress thereby contemplating on what to do.

This is certainly an event that has changed the characters life because she wants to commit suicide as a result of the pregnancy. Although this is not related to the first character, it serves the story well because they are good experiences that shape their lives. On the day that the lady contemplates committing suicide, she goes to an open movie theater.

As a matter of fact, she delivers during the show and names her daughter Ling Ling. At this stage, the young man might not be able to relate well with what he is reading but this seems to be the lady who gave him the keys. Xuehua ends up loosing her job because she did not disclose the father of the child.

From this experience, we can say that popular culture can be formed because the two characters have something in common (Storey 59). In this case, they lost their jobs at a time when everybody should have supported them. As far as popular culture is concerned, the totality of ideas is formed from the images that we encounter which is quite applicable in this scenario.

Other people who might witness such happenings will form an opinion that ends up being popular culture in the society. This is because individuals will end up with an informal consensus based on their attitudes and perspectives (Storey 64). Life later on returns to normalcy for the daughter and mother where Ling Ling continues with the mothers love for movies.

This is a very important turn of events because both characters seem to have a thriving and love for movies. Up to this point, we can say that popular culture has been influenced by movies because it must be influenced by something.

As time goes by, Ling Ling gets a new friend because of their individual misadventures. In the long run, Xiaobing gives his friend a binocular that he says can be used to see imaginary movies. On the other hand, Ling Ling’s mother marries Uncle Pan who is the owner of the theater that they frequented. All these events seem to be pointing to one thing where all the characters have seen their lives change as a result of movies.

Therefore, we can say that the theater and movies have an important role to play in the characters lives because this seems to be their turning point. As a matter of fact, this is where poplar culture is built upon in the characters lives. Bing Bing is born out of the marriage between Ling Ling’s mother and Uncle Pan.

There is a lot of jealousness and resentfulness from Ling Ling because of the parents liking for their new son. As much as the two children are offered a position is school, the parents can only afford to pay for one of them. In this case, they both chose on Bing Bing. This is a normal thing that can happen in any family but what follows is something that can be related well with popular culture. Television has been on the rise and this means that the Big Movie world is facing some closure.


There is the final day where the movies are supposed to close but Xuehua wants Ling Ling to stay at home despite her insistence that she wanted to go. As a matter of fact, she is locked at home but Bing Bing comes to let her out by sneaking in with keys. The two later on went and climbed on top of a water tower to watch the show where Bing Bing fell and died. As a result of this accident, Uncle Pan hits Ling Ling thereby leaving her with a permanent damage.

We can confidently say that these happenings can easily qualify to be referred to as popular culture because they are all based on one thing- movies. Every character in the film has had his life changed because of the films or events leading to the films. This is based on the fact that popular culture is based on the totality of ideas that we will witness as a result of various images.

From the film, we can conclude that this is an event that happened some time ago but they are leading us to one thing (Astronomy 13). The two characters have met in a unique way because this story leads them to their childhood days. As a matter of fact, this is the girl that he had befriended.

It occurs that she struck him at the alley because she is psychiatric and this was done after he killed her dog. Dabing is able to find the binocular that he gave her outside the balcony and through it; he is able to see familiar faces. The story seems to be saying that through popular culture, we can able to form an opinion about our lives (Storey 82).

This is because such experiences change our lives in a broad way. As far as my argument is concerned, popular culture is based on the experiences that we have in our lives. This is brought about by the turn of events that seem to bring about a totality of ideas based on attitudes and perspectives that come as a result of different happenings. In this case, something leads to another but they are all interlinked together.

Works Cited

Storey, John. Cultural theory and popular culture. New York: Pearson Education, 2006. Print.

Astronomy. Next NASA Mars mission rescheduled for 2011. 2011. Web. 6 June. 2011. Observing/News/2008/12/Next%20NASA%20Mars%20mission%20rescheduled %20for%202011.aspx