Love and Death1

What happens when two people fall in love? We may think of love as a sweet heart throbbing fairy tail situation, but in reality, unexpected dreadful circumstances often occur. As a couple falls helplessly in love, they become sexually active. Because of this intimate, uncontrollable love, a couple, with extremely high endodorphine levels may make a poor choice about contraceptives. This poor choice may result in a STD or even the life-concluding virus, HIV/AIDS. In this situation the couple develops mixed emotions which may cause a painful breakup leading to depression, which is the number one cause of suicide.

Being in love is a sense of excitement, of heightened emotion, heightened senses, of being in the unknown, of abduction, of not being in control of yourselfits like an excuse, I dont now what Im doing. Im in love(Gochros and Ricketts 27). Every day, people all over the world experience this intense description of love. Dr. JM Morris explains this in profound detail. The first step to falling in love is imprinting. Imprinting is finding a specific physical trait that attracts you to a certain person. Then there is a subliminal attraction, which is a personal quality, such as a persons laugh. Next is the hypotaemic stage. When experiencing this stage, a person becomes nervous and develops sweaty
palms when their affection is close to them. Then chemical anvetamines in your brain such as dopamine, norepine, and phenye ethyeamine react, causing a natural drug rush. Now that the couple has fallen in love, certain addictions and attachments occur. Dr. Morris continues, The brain chemical, oxytocin, otherwise known as the cuddle chemical promotes a realxed satisfying attraction and strong bonds due to endodorphine levels occur urging the couple to make love. Through this addiction, the brains actually begin to grow together. So now the endodrophine level is at its peak and if is the perfect time and place for the couple to have sex, but there is only one problem, they have no form of contraception. The couple, so in love and naturally drugged on endodorphine, can not resist their feelings and proceed by engaging in unprotected sex.
The use of contraceptives have become vital when considering that unprotected intercourse is likely to result in pregnancy and more importantly, it carries a high risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease (Contraception: choosing). There are presently many forms of contraception available to fit a persons cost, comfort and preference. When making this crucial choice, it is important to consider all your options. There are types of contraceptives, which are excellent for preventing pregnancy, but have absolutely no effectiveness against STDs.
The Combined pill, mini-pill, Depo-Provera, Norplant, IUD, and morning after pill are all in this category (Roland 6). Contraceptives, which prevent pregnancy and STDs, include the male and female condom, spermicides and diaphragms. The male condom is the most common use of contraception for males. It is a protective covering made of latex, polyurethane and it fits over the penis. The condom keeps the semen from entering to vagina(Kronenfeld, Whicker 43). The female condom is not as common and is bulky and difficult to insert and the cost is high. It is a polyurethane sheath that lines the entire vagina and partially covers the external genitals(Birth Control 2). Spermicides are another over the counter contraceptive. These products area type of spermicidle jelly or foam in the form of a capsule inserted into the vagina before intercourse. There are no serious side effects but it may be messy. The woman can also use a diaphragm or cervical cap. This is flexible rubber barrier used with spermicidal cream or jelly. It is inserted before intercourse and blocks and kills sperm moving toward the uterus (Emergency Contraceptives 2). All of these contraceptives are effective in stopping pregnancy and STDs but the only thing that can completely prevent sexual mistakes is abstinence. If a couple decides not to use any of these methods of contraception they are at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases and even HIV/AIDS. Present day, more than fifty organisms and syndromes
Kosier 4are now recognized as sexually transmitted. These diseases can lead to serious health problems, and when untreated, can lead to major consequences (Anderson Smith 22). Sadly, STDs can indeed kill and individual, a woman who develops a serious case of pelvic inflammatory may die, and more commonly, a person with AIDs will die (Clinic). The two most common STDs are Chlamydia and Syphilis. Although Chlamydia can be extremely painful for females in the lower abdomen, 80%of the infected hove no symptoms at all. Chlamydia is curable with certain antibiotic. Syphilis, although curable as well, can cause sever damage to the nervous system and other body organs, resulting in long term damage. Other STDs cause painful blisters and warts to develop on the mouth and genitals and anus. Genital herpes, genital warts, and scabies are all included in this category. These sores are extremely painful and sometimes are incurable (Holmes Mardh Sparling Wiesner). Other popular STDs include Garderella Vaginits, Hepatitis A, B, C and D, and Gonorrhea, they all have symptoms including, vaginal discharge, pain while urinating, possible bleeding, ect. Some people have no symptoms at all and most of these STDs can be cured by antibiotics (Clinic). But one STD that can not be cured by antibiotic or any other way is the life concluding disease. HIV/AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, this infection damages the bodys immune system that protects the body from
disease. As HIV forms to Aids the immune system is extremely weak, when this happens, other diseases and infections inter the body, eventually causing death (Schettler 1-2). The only guarantee to keep from getting a STD is to practice sexual abstinence, but on a more realistic note, it is extremely important to use contraceptives during sexual intercourse to lessen the chances of infection.

Being infected with and STD is a very difficult situation. It causes hardship between the sexually active couple, it effects the victims family and friends who care about them, and if the victim is bearing a child at the time, it could effect the babes health as well. The STD might cause a difficult breakup between the two partners, or for teenagers, it creates a conflict between them and their parents. A person may be deeply bothered by long time scares that can effect their future, like women becoming unable to bear children because or the damage done, or even the embarrassment it causes. In many cases the victim falls in a stage of depression. Depression, effecting over one in five Americans in their lifetimes the number one cause of suicide (Campbell51). People who have AIDS are at an extremely high risk of taking their own lives (Pahl 3).They dont want to go through the pain of a slow death or wish to face the humility. An infected person may feel dirty and unwanted; this type of depression often leads to suicide (Fagan 8).
So now when we think of love, we may see it a little differently after being educated. We can see how love and death can tie together; love leads to sex, allowing high endodrophine levels to make a poor choice of
Contraceptives, which, in turn, leads to STDs, HIV/AIDS, which causes depression, resulting in suicide.
Bibliography:

The Story Of Medusa Ilana Eliran

There are many variations of the story of Medusa. Yet, I find this one more
detailed and precise. Medusa is apart of the chain of Greek Mythology, these stories, or
legends are not real and usually said to get a point across, or entertainment. Medusa also
shows the relationship the society had with women at that time.
Medusa was a Gorgon, The Gorgon’s where three sisters, daughters of Phorcys
and Ceto. Their names where Stethno, Euryale, and Medusa. Stethno and Euryale where
immortal, however Medusa was a mortal. The three sisters where known to be so ugly, if
anyone looked at them they would be killed instantly.
Medusa was a Queen who reigned in the land around Tritons in Libya. She used to
be a beautiful Maiden and Triton fell in love with her. Medusa, after her encounter with
Triton, Athena, turned into an ugly woman with snakes as hair, and anyone that looked
upon her would turn into stone. Medusa had this spell cast upon her by Athena because,
Medusa and Poseidon where caught sleeping together in one of Athena’s temples. Athena
then became very angry and in her rage, turned Medusa into an ugly woman.
Thus, as the story goes Perseus (the son of Andromeda and Zeus), is assigned to
assassinate Medusa. He kills her by coming to her in her sleep, then using a mirror looks
to see her face, careful not to look at her, he cuts her head off. The blood that splurged
from her neck made the country of Libya infested, because her blood turned into snakes. It
is also said that Heracles is said to have obtained a lock of Medusa’s hair, which possessed
the same power as her head, from Athena. He gave it to Sterope, the daughter of
Cepheus, as protection for the town of Tegea against attack. When exposed to view, the
lock was supposed to bring on a storm, which put the enemy to flight.

In my mind Medusa has many different symbolic qualities. She showed strength,
and that is why I think this story ties in with the equality of women. If a man was strong
he would not be persecuted just because he was a man. Yet, medusa was definitely picked
on by many people. This also shows that the society then was scared of powerful women.

Because why did people want her dead, it was the fact that she was very powerful and
might have intimidated many men.

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000E8136 DEVICEINITSUCCESS= VDEF
000E8135 Initing hsflop.pdr
000E8136 Init Success hsflop.pdr
000E8137 Initing esdi_506.pdr
000E8140 Init Success esdi_506.pdr
000E8142 Initing esdi_506.pdr
000E815D Init Success esdi_506.pdr
000E815D Initing drvwq117.vxd
000E817E Init Success drvwq117.vxd
000E8184 INITCOMPLETE = VMM
000E8184 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VMM
000E8184 INITCOMPLETE = VCACHE
000E8184 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VCACHE
000E8184 INITCOMPLETE = PERF
000E8184 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = PERF
000E8184 INITCOMPLETE = VPICD
000E8184 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VPICD
000E8184 INITCOMPLETE = VrtwD
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VrtwD
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = VTD
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VTD
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = VWIN32
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VWIN32
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = VXDLDR
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VXDLDR
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = NTKERN
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = NTKERN
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = CONFIGMG
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = CONFIGMG
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = PCI
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = PCI
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = ISAPNP
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = ISAPNP
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = BIOS
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = BIOS
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = VCDFSD
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VCDFSD
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = IOS
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = IOS
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = PAGEFILE
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = PAGEFILE
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = PAGESWAP
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = PAGESWAP
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = PARITY
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = PARITY
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = REBOOT
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = REBOOT
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = EBIOS
000E8185 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = EBIOS
000E8185 INITCOMPLETE = VDD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VDD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = TRIDENT
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = TRIDENT
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = VSD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VSD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = COMBUFF
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = COMBUFF
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = VCD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VCD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = VMOUSE
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VMOUSE
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = MSMINI
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = MSMINI
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = VKD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VKD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = VPD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VPD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = INT13
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = INT13
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = VMCPD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VMCPD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = BIOSXLAT
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = BIOSXLAT
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = SDVXD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETEFAILED = SDVXD
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = VNETBIOS
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VNETBIOS
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = NDIS
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = NDIS
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = PPPMAC
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = PPPMAC
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = NDISWAN
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = NDISWAN
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = VTDI
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VTDI
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = VIP
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VIP
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = MSTCP
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = MSTCP
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = VDHCP
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VDHCP
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = VNBT
000E8186 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VNBT
000E8186 INITCOMPLETE = DOSMGR
000E8188 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = DOSMGR
000E8188 INITCOMPLETE = VMPOLL
000E8188 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VMPOLL
000E8188 INITCOMPLETE = VFIXD
000E8188 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VFIXD
000E8188 INITCOMPLETE = JAVASUP
000E8188 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = JAVASUP
000E8188 INITCOMPLETE = VCOMM
000E8189 Dynamic load device serenum.vxd
000E818A Dynamic init device SERENUM
000E818A Dynamic init success SERENUM
000E818A Dynamic load success serenum.vxd
000E818A Dynamic load device serenum.vxd
000E818A Dynamic init device SERENUM
000E818A Dynamic init success SERENUM
000E818A Dynamic load success serenum.vxd
000E818A Dynamic load device lptenum.vxd
000E818A Dynamic init device LPTENUM
000E818A Dynamic init success LPTENUM
000E818A Dynamic load success lptenum.vxd
000E818A INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VCOMM
000E818A Dynamic load device C:WINDOWSsystemserial.vxd
000E818B Dynamic init device SERIAL
000E818B Dynamic init success SERIAL
000E818B Dynamic load success C:WINDOWSsystemserial.vxd
000E81AB Dynamic load device C:WINDOWSsystemIOSUBSYSatapchng.vxd
000E81AC Dynamic load success C:WINDOWSsystemIOSUBSYSatapchng.vxd
000E81AC Dynamic load device C:WINDOWSsystemIOSUBSYSdiskvsd.vxd
000E81AC Dynamic load success C:WINDOWSsystemIOSUBSYSdiskvsd.vxd
000E81AC Dynamic load device C:WINDOWSsystemIOSUBSYS
ecatapi.vxd
000E81AC Dynamic load success C:WINDOWSsystemIOSUBSYS
ecatapi.vxd
000E81AC Dynamic load device C:WINDOWSsystemIOSUBSYS orisan3.vxd
000E81AD Dynamic load success C:WINDOWSsystemIOSUBSYS orisan3.vxd
000E81AD Dynamic load device C:WINDOWSsystemIOSUBSYSdrvspacx.vxd
000E81AE Dynamic load success C:WINDOWSsystemIOSUBSYSdrvspacx.vxd
000E81AE Initing drvwppqt.vxd
000E81C0 Init Success drvwppqt.vxd
000E81C1 Dynamic load device msmpu401.vxd
000E81C1 Dynamic init device MSMPUVXD
000E81C1 Dynamic init success MSMPUVXD
000E81C1 Dynamic load success msmpu401.vxd
000E81C2 Dynamic load device vjoyd.vxd
000E81C2 Dynamic init device VJOYD
000E81C2 Dynamic init success VJOYD
000E81C2 Dynamic load success vjoyd.vxd
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETE = APIX
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = APIX
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETE = CDTSD
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = CDTSD
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETE = CDVSD
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = CDVSD
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETE = DiskTSD
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = DiskTSD
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETE = scsi1hlp
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = scsi1hlp
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETE = voltrack
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = voltrack
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETE = BIGMEM
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = BIGMEM
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETE = SPAP
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = SPAP
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETE = HSFLOP
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = HSFLOP
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETE = ESDI_506
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = ESDI_506
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETE = SERENUM
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = SERENUM
000E81C2 INITCOMPLETE = LPTENUM
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = LPTENUM
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = msmpu401
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = msmpu401
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = vjoyd
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = vjoyd
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = DRVWCDB
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = DRVWCDB
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = DRVWPPQT
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = DRVWPPQT
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = DRVWQ117
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = DRVWQ117
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = VDMAD
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VDMAD
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = V86MMGR
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = V86MMGR
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = SPOOLER
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = SPOOLER
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = UDF
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = UDF
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = VFAT
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VFAT
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = VDEF
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VDEF
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = CDFS
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = CDFS
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = IFSMGR
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = IFSMGR
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = VFBACKUP
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = VFBACKUP
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETE = SHELL
000E81C3 INITCOMPLETESUCCESS = SHELL
Initializing KERNEL
LoadStart = system.drv
LoadSuccess = system.drv
LoadStart = keyboard.drv
LoadSuccess = keyboard.drv
LoadStart = mouse.drv
LoadSuccess = mouse.drv
LoadStart = trid_pci.drv
LoadStart = DIBENG.DLL
LoadSuccess = DIBENG.DLL
LoadSuccess = trid_pci.drv
LoadStart = mmsound.drv
LoadSuccess = mmsound.drv
LoadStart = comm.drv
LoadSuccess = comm.drv
LoadStart = gdi.exe
LoadStart = C:WINDOWSSYSTEMGDI32.DLL
LoadStart = GDI.EXE
LoadSuccess = GDI.EXE
LoadStart = GDI.EXE
LoadSuccess = GDI.EXE
LoadStart = GDI.EXE
LoadSuccess = GDI.EXE
LoadStart = GDI.EXE
LoadSuccess = GDI.EXE
LoadSuccess = C:WINDOWSSYSTEMGDI32.DLL
LoadStart = C:WINDOWSfontsvgasys.fon
LoadSuccess = C:WINDOWSfontsvgasys.fon
LoadStart = C:WINDOWSfontsvgafix.fon
LoadSuccess = C:WINDOWSfontsvgafix.fon
LoadStart = C:WINDOWSfontsvgaoem.fon
LoadSuccess = C:WINDOWSfontsvgaoem.fon
LoadSuccess = gdi.exe
LoadStart = user.exe
LoadStart = DDEML.DLL
LoadSuccess = DDEML.DLL
LoadStart = C:WINDOWSSYSTEMUSER32.DLL
LoadStart = USER.EXE
LoadSuccess = USER.EXE
LoadStart = USER.EXE
LoadSuccess = USER.EXE
LoadStart = USER.EXE
LoadSuccess = USER.EXE
LoadStart = USER.EXE
LoadSuccess = USER.EXE
LoadStart = USER.EXE
LoadSuccess = USER.EXE
LoadSuccess = C:WINDOWSSYSTEMUSER32.DLL
LoadStart = COOL.DLL
LoadSuccess = COOL.DLL
Init = KEYBOARD
InitDone = KEYBOARD
Init = Mouse
Status = Mouse driver installed
InitDone = Mouse
Init =
LoadStart = DISPLAY.drv
LoadSuccess = DISPLAY.drv
InitDone = DISPLAY
Init = Display Resources
InitDone = Display Resources
LoadStart = C:WINDOWSfontsserife.fon
LoadSuccess = C:WINDOWSfontsserife.fon
LoadStart = C:WINDOWSfontssserife.fon
LoadSuccess = C:WINDOWSfontssserife.fon
LoadStart = C:WINDOWSfontscoure.fon
LoadSuccess = C:WINDOWSfontscoure.fon
LoadStart = C:WINDOWSfontssymbole.fon
LoadSuccess = C:WINDOWSfontssymbole.fon
LoadStart = C:WINDOWSfontssmalle.fon
LoadSuccess = C:WINDOWSfontssmalle.fon
LoadSuccess = user.exe
LoadStart = MSGSRV32.EXE
LoadSuccess = MSGSRV32.EXE
Init = Final USER
InitDone = Final USER
Init = Installable Drivers
InitDone = Installable Drivers
Init = TSRQuery
InitDone = TSRQuery
Init = Display Resources
InitDone = Display Resources
Terminate = User
Terminate = Query Drivers
EndTerminate = Query Drivers
Terminate = Unload Network
EndTerminate = Unload Network
Terminate = Reset Display
EndTerminate = Reset Display
EndTerminate = User

The holocaust

The Holocaust was the mass murder of European Jews by the nazis during the second world war. It took place from the 30th of January 1933 to the end of the war in Europe on May 8th 1945. The nazi dictator Adolph Hitler planned to wipe out the entire Jewish population as a part of his plan to conquer the world. Holocaust refers to any widespread human disaster but it’s special meaning is the annihilations of six million Jewish men, women and children by the nazi regime. The Jews were singled out for extermination because the nazis had a hatred for them as they considered jews as a race whose goal was world domination and was an obstruction to the Aryan dominance. So the nazis thought it was their duty to eliminate the Jews as they were a threat. Every Jewish community occupying Europe suffered losses during the holocaust. Jews in north Africa were persecuted but did not suffer the same mass murders as in Europe.

Ethnic groups, especially Gypsies and Poles were killed as well.

At the end of the war in 1945 the nazis had killed over two thirds of the Jews in Europe.

In 1933 the nazi regime came to power in Germany and almost immediately they started to take measures against the Jews. One of the first measures was to define who was considered a Jew. Anyone who had 3 or more Jewish grandparents was automatically a Jew even if that person did not belong to the Jewish community. Half Jews were considered Jewish only if they belonged to the Jewish religion or were married to a Jewish person.

Other half Jews or Jews with just one grandparent were categorized as Mishlinge . The Mischlinge were officially excluded from membership in the nazi party and all Party organisations.
Then the boycott of Jewish shops and businesses started by the nazis.

extreme efforts were made by the nazis to eliminate Jews from economic life. Jewish lawyers and doctors lost their Aryan clients, Jewish children were not allowed to go to school with the German children and the Jewish employees of Aryanised firms lost their jobs. All synagogues in Germany were set on fire, windows of Jewish shops were smashed and thousands of Jews were arrested.
The German army occupied Poland when world war two began in 1939 and the polish Jews were forced to move into over crowded ghettos surrounded by walls and barbed wire. Germany’s plan to murder all the Jews in Europe was known as the “final solution’. The final solution began when Germany invaded the Union of Soviet Socialist republics. Jews were made to wear arm bands marked with a yellow star. More and More Jews over Europe were made to leave their homes and were taken to ghettos in Poland. The next measure was already underway to exterminate Jews and this was known as the death camp. Death camps also known as concentration camps were especially designed for systematic murder. Millions of Jews were imprisoned in death camps. Jews were transported to these camps by train, packed into carriages that were so cramped there was no room to move at all. Often the sick and elderly died on the way. The camps were equipped with gassing facilities and some had factories in which the prisoners worked to death. Those unable to work m, the aged , the sick, many women and most children were gassed. The prisoners lived in conditions which were horrible and many died of starvation and disease and doctors performed cruel experiments on some prisoners. The first death concentration camp was in Dachau which was opened on march 22nd 1933. The camp’s inmates were communists, criminals, homosexuals, Jehovah’s witnesses and beggars. There were six camps opened, these were in Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Madjdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka. The largest and most infamous of the camps was Aushwitz which was opened in June 1940 in Poland about fifty kilometeres from Krakow. In June 1941 it became an extermination centre with four huge gas chambers installed. Over two and a half million people were executed at Auschwitz and five hundred thousand more were starved to death. Most people who died at Auschwitz were Jews from German controlled countries. Another camp was bergan-belsen. This camp was located near Humburg, Germany. When it was liberated by British troops they found 10,00 unburied dead and 40,00 starving, sick and dying prisoners. The Germans tried to kept their actions as secret as possible but as word got out of what the Germans were doing the Jews tried to fight back but were outnumbered. Because so many inmates dies at the death camps from starvation shooting and disease large crematories were constructed to erase traces of destruction. In 1945 American and British troops found out about Nazi’s plan and liberated the death camps. By the end of the war the Jewish dead numbered more than five million , three million in killing centres and other camps, one point four million in shooting operations , and more than sixty thousand in ghettos.


Bibliography:

The importance of premarital counseling before marriage

Abstract: It is imperative to note that marriage is fundamentally important. However, it calls for legitimate interest to strengthen it since it is the major platform in which the family and society is built. Individual differences among couples often result into disruptive consequences in marriage institutions.

This has largely resulted into rise of myriad of divorce cases. It is thus essential for couples contemplating to enter into a binding contract to go through premarital counseling program in order to get skills and knowledge on how to maintain their marriage. Research has proved that premarital counseling is effective in helping couples understand the challenges and uncertainties in marriage institution.

Therefore, it acts as a foresight and thus guide couples on how to establish a stable marriage and to reduce marital discord. It is arguable that premarital counseling should be made mandatory in all societies since it has helped in fostering marital permanence. This paper therefore explores the importance of premarital counseling before marriage by reviewing various sources literature.

Introduction: It is evident that we are living in a society that is experiencing changes in all facets of life such as relationships, leisure, marriages and lifestyles (Carroll & Doherty, 2003).

In this case, we are past the decades when marriage was perceived as an obsolete and old-fashioned aspect in the society. Research has shown that in the late 20th century, marriage has taken a different dimension where partners have taken the initiative to determine their marriage life by themselves.

Clinton and Sibcy (2006) are quite categorical that unlike the case in the past centuries where parents chose marriage partners to their sons and daughters, there has been a tremendous shift where young adults personally meet and select their lifetime partners. Therefore, both the groom and the bride take initiatives to make their marriage perfect (Lee, Lisa & Van Dyke, 1999).

In this case, premarital counseling has been perceived as a crucial tool that helps couples to learn and cope with their vast differences before they venture into a binding contract. Stanley (2001) notes that failing to plan is similar to planning to fail. From this assumption, it is certain the premarital counseling is important before marriage. It is against this ground that this paper explores the importance of premarital counseling on marriage.

Carroll and Doherty (2003) argue that Christian scholars perceive premarital counseling as an investment for couples who are in a serious relationship. Nevertheless, there are people who give a lot of attention to planning their wedding ceremonies and pay little attention to efforts that can make their marriage strong (Clinton & Sibcy, 2006).

It is also notable that premarital counseling programs have significantly enhanced rise of strong marriages. In this case, premarital counseling programs give couples time to interact, ask questions and learn from each other before they commit themselves to marriage. In line with this, young adults get a window of opportunity for self clarification, adventure and binding with their partners (Stanley, 2001).

In addition, the counseling process requires a trained family and marriage therapist to take charge and address normal challenges and issues that couples face before their enter into marriage (Lee, Lisa & Van Dyke, 1999). It is certain that if there is little or no effort made in preparing couples for marriage, there is higher probability that the relationship will not work (Lee, Lisa & Van Dyke, 1999).

The fact that individual differences are inevitable in any given relationship, the situation is subject to change resulting into better outcomes through pre-marital counseling (Clinton & Sibcy, 2006). In this case, it is arguable that diversity and intimacy are the key focus in marriage and families that make premarital counseling important bearing in mind that couples who intend to get married often come from different backgrounds with various perspectives.

It goes without saying that God instilled the institution of marriage in human beings to flourish but not to fail. In this case, Carroll and Doherty (2003) compliment that marriage education should be made intentional to ensure that couples build a firm foundation for their marriage.

Research has revealed that pre-marital counseling help couples to communicate and indentify their interests, fears, values, dreams and beliefs, a factor that fosters the strength of marriage institution. Of important to note is that this type of counseling must be handled by persons with diverse knowledge and skills related to marriage and families (Groom, 2001). In this case, premarital counseling is conducted by therapists, psychiatrists, psychologists and clinical officers.

It is imperative to note that there are two major functions which premarital counseling serves (Olson & DeFrain, 2005). First and foremost, premarital counseling assists couples to develop skills and knowledge on how to make a successful navigation in their marriage. Furthermore, it helps them to identify and resolve conflicting issues that arise due to individual differences that occur during their interaction with each other (Scott et al., 2006).

Commonly, there are specific areas that are included in premarital counseling. For instance, premarital counseling focuses on interests, activities, role expectations, finances, sexuality, communication and personal adjustment. Research has shown that premarital counseling is the most effective step that couples should take before they venture into a binding contract (Carroll & Doherty, 2003). From a careful review of literature, this program allows couples to develop effective communication tools that eventually strengthen their relationship.

Empirically, communication skills are essential for a successful marriage. Therefore, premarital counseling provides an avenue for partners to learn the communication styles used by each other (Olson & DeFrain, 2005). Moreover, the professionals concerned with the program can as well teach couples who are in a serious relationship leading to marriage how to communicate effectively.

As a matter of fact, this can be carried out even after they venture into a binding contract. Pointless to say, research has shown that more than 50% of divorce cases occur due to poor communication skills among couples (Lee, Lisa & Van Dyke, 1999). From this observation, one can deduce that couples who receive premarital counseling before marriage are less susceptible to divorce than those who do not get the counseling.

That notwithstanding, one can claim that premarital counseling is a precondition for marital permanence among couples who are intending to marry. Lee, Lisa and Van Dyke (1999) assert that whenever a couple goes through premarital counseling, they are able to know whether their marriage will work or not (Clinton & Sibcy, 2006). This is due to the fact that couples often discuss about their long-term goals with their counselors. To some extent, their career prospects are likely to affect their marriage either positively or negatively.

In this case, premarital counseling gives couples a chance to envision their lifestyles interests and goals together prior to marriage. If this does not happen, most people in relationships or marriages feel that their goals are not being aligned and this result into conflicts (Scott et al., 2006). It is definite that premarital counseling acts as an avenue to foresee and therefore prevent conflicts that might emerge once a couple gets into a binding and lasting contract (Olson & DeFrain, 2005).

This is one way of conflict management that has to a larger extent, helped people to escape the trauma of broken marriages. In most cases where marriages fail to work, it has been established that lack of compatibility is usually a major cause of concern. The latter is preventable if couples get to know each other better prior to settling down in marriage.

It is imperative to note that problems in marriages are inevitable especially when couples have not adequately prepared to get into the binding contact. Scott et al. (2006) assert that premarital counseling serves the purpose of orienting couples and boosting their readiness for marriage.

There are couples who are not aware of their liabilities and assets in a relationship. Research has shown that some individuals enter into relationships without knowing whether the spouses they have selected are good for them (Groom, 2001). In addition to this, the most confusing issue is when to marry or get married.

At this juncture, premarital counseling is not just meant to help couples to plan their marriages but also how to cope with emerging issues. Notably, 30% of couples who endure challenges in marriage often get the skill from premarital education (Clinton & Sibcy, 2006). Needless to say, such education gives couples a strong support line to endure and overcome challenges that they may eventually face while living as husband and wife.

Besides this, premarital counseling has been considered as a source of strength and refreshment for people in relationships. Research has shown that premarital counseling programs help top boost the level of intimacy in couples. According to Carroll and Doherty (2003), premarital counseling helps to exhibit a positive correlation between couples, a factor that results into successful marriage. Couples get to understand what intimacy is all about and how to maintain it even in the marriage institution (Stanley, 2001).

It is obvious that people fall in love and get engaged to each other. However, their commitment to develop an intimate relationship will determine how compatible they become. Intimacy helps couples to learn each other’s habits, personality, goals and viewpoints (Clinton & Sibcy, 2006). When couples are intimate with each other, they have sets of expectations from their relationship.

This involves sharing responsibilities and parenting duties. Research has shown that most couples refrain from tackling the issue of intimacy and postpone it until at that point when they will be married. This is a gross misconception bearing in mind that there is hardly any time for such deliberations when couples are already in marriage since they are overtaken by other more urgent issues that arise in their marriages.

Groom (2001) confirms that this does not always happen since majority of the couples give attention to other issues and thus their marriage is vulnerable to misconceptions and misunderstanding. Furthermore, financial issues have of late succinctly become a major point of focus in premarital counseling. This is due to the fact that a large number of marriages have broken due to financial-related conflicts.

Thus, scholars argue that premarital counseling should effectively address the issue of finances before couples enter into marriages. Olson and DeFrain (2005) recommend that psychologists and therapists should address in details the issue of responsibilities and budgeting of pertinent issues. It is important to consider the financial history of a couple and also the financial views.

Groom (2001) reiterates that most couples do not know how to prepare budget and allocate finances in marriages. Consequently, such couples suffer from financial stress not because they do not have money but they do not know how to spend it. Research has shown that young couples need guidance on how to establish a successful financial future (Stanley, 2001). It is therefore evident that financial compatibility and good budgeting creates a firm foundation for an organized marriage.

Conclusion: To reiterate on this, it is reasonably beyond doubt that premarital counseling is vital in marriage. Subtly, premarital education focuses on key aspects that are involved in marriage such as sex, intimacy, finance, conflict resolution, interests, goals and personal adjustment.

With this information in mind, one can argue that venturing into marriage without premarital counseling is synonymous to starting a business without knowing what it entails. This is due to the fact that premarital counseling is based on reality in marriage institution. Moreover, it should be taken seriously and ample time should be provided for the couple to receive full benefits. Finally, it is definite that premarital counseling is the gateway to a happy, long lasting and successful marriage.

References

Carroll, J. & Doherty, W. (2003). Evaluating the effectiveness of premarital prevention programs: A meta-analytic review of outcome research. Family Relations 52(1): 105-118

Clinton, T. & Sibcy, G. (2006). Why You Do the Things You Do: The Secret to Healthy Relationships. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, Inc.

Groom, J. (2001). What works in premarital counseling? Journal of Pastoral counseling, 36(1): 46-48.

Lee, W., Lisa, R. & Van Dyke, D. (1999). An empirical approach to designing marriage preparation programs. American Journal of Family Therapy 27(3); 271-276.

Olson, H. & DeFrain, J. (2005). Marriages and Families: Intimacy, Diversity and Strengths. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Scott, M., Amato, P., Johnson, A. & Howard, J. (2006). Premarital Education, Marital Quality, and Marital Stability: Findings from a

Large, Random Household Survey. Journal of Family Psychology 20(1): 117-126.

Stanley, S. (2001). Making a case for premarital education. Family Relations 50(1): 272- 280.

Blenheim Bridge

Abstract

The Blenheim Bridge was constructed after the ratification of legislation in New York, which sought to incorporate the Blenheim Bridge Company.

It was constructed under the architectural leadership of Nicholas Powers, who repaired a covered bridge at Schoharie before being asked to build a bridge with a covered design in North Blenheim in 1854. After accepting the contract, the construction of Blenheim Bridge was completed in the year 1855. However, it was destroyed in August 2011 following floods, which were caused by Tropical Storm Irene.

Blenheim Bridge

Located in Blenheim, New York, the Blenheim Bridge was recognized as the longest bridge, made of wood in the United States. The bridge was 228 feet, and was designed and constructed by use of long trusses and an arch, for support. One hundred and one years after the bridge was constructed, the authorities listed Blenheim in the National Register of Historic Places (HAER NY 5).

The seventy one meters long bridge spanned Schoharie Creek in the northern region of th`e New York City. According to historic records, it was the second longest wooden covered bridge in the world, being listed after the famous Bridgeport Covered Bridge.

Besides its length, Blenheim Bridge was one of the oldest wooden bridges in the United States. As mentioned above, Nicholas Powers is highly credited as the chief architect of the bridge. He was welcomed from Vermont to work on the project by an association of businessmen, who were members of the Blenheim Bridge Company.

The bridge remained actively in use until the year 1932, when a steel truss was erected near the bridge to ease traffic. Since that year, the bridge was considered and maintained as a national historic site, and was officially recognized as a National Historic Landmark in the year 1964 (HAER NY 5).

Site History

The history of the Blenheim Bridge dates back in the late 19th century, during the time of Gen. Freegift Patchin. During his time, he constructed a gristmill near the site of the bridge, before establishing the famous hamlet of Patchin Hollow, which is currently known as the North Blenheim. In the year 1875, North Blenheim was given a special description from Hamilton Child (HAER NY 7).

North Blenheim is also known as Patchin Hollow, and it is located on the Western side of Schoharie Creek, near Westkill. Importantly, the site is partitioned by a steep hill, which approaches the creek, leaving a narrow space to allow the passage of a road. Additionally, the site has several social buildings including churches, hotels, schools, stores, wagon shops, blacksmith shops, tailoring shops, saw mills and about fifty households (HAER NY 8).

Furthermore, the site has waster power, which was never improved throughout the history of the site. There is also a steam sash and a factory in the vicinity of the site. Another important fact is that the Blenheim Bridge Company was incorporated in the year 1828 by the New York State legislature, even though no bridge was built for almost thirty years.

In 1850, Major Hezekiah Dickerman from Connecticut visited the place and initiated the construction of a tannery on Schoharie Creek. Moreover, the hemlock back, which was used for tannin was found on the other side of the creek, which prompted Mr. Dickerman to push for the construction of the Bridge in 1854.

It is believed that his influence was quite significance since he had been appointment to the Board of Supervisors and was a shareholder in the construction company, which had been incorporated by the legislature in 1832. For a very long time, the bridge was mainly used for pedestrian traffic of visitors who were willing to enter from the eastern side of the bride, before it was replaced with a concrete and steel bridge (HAER NY 8). The image below shows the site of the bridge:

Construction of the Blenheim Bridge

Nicholas Powers, the man who is credited for the design of the longest wooden bridge in the world went to Schoharie in New York to carry out some repair on a wooden bridge before he was asked to construct a wooden bridge in North Blenheim. He was invited by one of the directors, George Martin.

It is believed that Nicholas was selected to work on the project based on his architectural experience. In addition, the bridge was built “piece by piece back of the current village in North Blenheim” (HAER NY 8). This allowed the masons to work on the stone abutments as the carpenters perfected on wood work. After the two groups had worked on their assignments, the bridge was disassembled and re-erected across the river.

Construction Materials

In terms of the materials, which were used in the construction of the bridge, a total of ninety-four thousand board feet of lumber was used. This was equivalent to one hundred and twenty seven tons. In addition, three thousand six hundred pounds of bolts were used during the construction.

Since it was to be a wooden bridge, joinery was quite significant and this was facilitated by the use of bolts. For effective joinery, one thousand five hundred pounds of washers were also used during the entire construction process. In terms of payment, Nicholas Powers was paid $7.00 a day, totaling to $2000. On the other hand, workmen received $ 1.00 a day. The construction work of the Blenheim Bridge came to completion in the year 1855 at a total cost of $ 6,000 (HAER NY 9).

Repair and maintenance

Since its construction in 1855, the Blenheim Bridge underwent a series of repairs and renovations, which were necessary in making it more functional and safe for usage by pedestrians. For instance, a wooden approach span was constructed in 1869, following the washing away of a channel on the eastern side of the bridge.

Moreover, the management of the bridge experienced another blow when the second approach span collapsed as a result of a threshing machine in 1891 (HAER NY 9). After several deliberations and consultations with the board, the construction of a better iron approach span was approved to solve the problem, which was becoming a thorn in the flesh of leaders.

After the construction of the iron approach span, the bridge was to serve its purpose without any hitch. However, there was a major repair, which was carried out in 1973 at a total cost of $2,920 (HAER NY 5). This renovation project was led by Milton Graton of Ashland, who was highly reputed for his experience in the construction of covered bridges in New York. According to Milton, the bridge was in urgent need, describing its status as “Covered Bridge Arthritis” at all its bearing points.

Due to the fact that timber was rotting, the bridge had settled at the westerly end and was becoming a security threat to its users. To reinforce the bridge, there was need to place concrete slabs below the lower chords to the first vertical posts. In addition, three feet of the end of the arch were chopped off before they were replaced with new thrust blocks to provide stability to the ailing bridge. Besides these, Milton recommended that the bridge be re-sheathed.

Before it was destroyed by Tropical Storm Irene in 2011, the Blenheim Bridge had experienced a wide range of disasters including lightning, flash floods and being set of fire three times. Despite the fact that repair and maintenance of the bridge always had significant cost implications, most people within its vicinity were extremely fond of it (HAER NY 9).

As a way of nurturing and promoting its history, the people commemorated several anniversaries of the structure and used it to augment the tourism industry of the region. Due to its popularity and history, there have been individuals expressing their willingness to purchase the bridge, the latest being witnessed in 1970 by Franklin Resseguie, who was an attorney in Binghamton.

This decision came about when he was in the process of establishing an exhibit on Hiawatha Island felt that the structure was to be more accessible to most of his visitors. However, his request was not accepted as the Schoharie County Board of Supervisors affirmed that the bridge was not to be sold out at any given price. As mentioned earlier, the bridge was recognized as a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 1974. It was also rehabilitated in the year 1997 (HAER NY 10).

Ownership of the Bridge

For several years, it was noted that a toll keeper lived in a small house that was adjacent to the bridge. The rates of the toll were footmen and teams. After the disbandment of the Blenheim Bridge Company in 1860s, the span was purchased by Mr. Dickerman who later presented it to his daughter, Mrs. Charles Waite. The tolls were collected at the bridge once a year by Waite’s grandson. Similarly, the bridge was purchased by Moses Hubert, who parted with $ 2,000.

However, the bridge was put under the jurisdiction of the State of New York after the charter of Moses expired. In 1930, the County Board of Supervisors was petitioned by residents after it attempted to demolish the bridge and replace it with a better span (HAER NY 9). In 1931, the plea of residents was honored after the board ratified the retention of the structure and transferred its ownership to the County administration and recognized it as a historic relic.

Bridge design

Before it was destroyed late last year, the Blenheim Bridge was an ideal feat for wooden structural engineering in the United States and around the world. Its two hundred feet length put it second on the world list of wooden bridges. It was mainly made of virgin pine, also referred to as the mighty arch of the oak.

Its single center arch was regarded to be its main feature, upon which the bridge rested its weight (Dillon 2). It was a major source of strength for the bridge as it offered full support. The arch stretched in a three-rib section that was attached to the abutments, extending to the ridge pole that was located at the middle of the bridge. This pattern was repeated towards the back to enhance maximum reinforcement.

Trusses were also major features of the bridge. The three trusses were designed to offer support to the bridge. The largest truss was placed at the center of the arch, while the other two were placed twenty seven feet apart.

This design divided the bridge into two major lanes, making it referred to as double-barrel or double-tunnel bridge. The trusses were designed and patented in the year 1830 by Colonel Stephen Long. They mainly took the “X” shape. Long hailed from Hopkinton New Hampshire and was born in 1784 (Dillon 3). He later attended Dartmouth College, before tutoring mathematics in West Point.

The climax of his engineering career was attained after becoming a U.S. army engineer in 1814. During this time, he was involved in numerous surveys that were meant to help the U.S. Army Topographical Engineers. He offered consultancy services during the construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. He later developed interest in design and construction of bridges (HAER NY 11).

The Long truss was recognized as the first bridge truss to be designed since he had used mathematical formulation during its design, unlike the previous bridge trusses, which had been designed empirically. By using continuous framing over the piers, Long became a forerunner of iron panel-trusses. Blenheim Bridge remained consistent with the patent’s requirements.

However, it was noted that the counterbrace wedges appeared at the bottom instead of being at the top. Nevertheless, many truss bridges were constructed in the 19th century even though most of the trusses appeared to be paired on both sides (Dillon 3). The uniqueness of the Blenheim Bridge was that it was not only built with a single arch, but also followed the traditional technology of construction, which had been used during the construction of bridges until mid 19th century.

The 200’ long span gave the bridge a distinction of being recognized as one of the longest wooden bridges in the world. It is however important to mention that several bridges were in existence at the time when the North Blenheim Bridge was constructed. One of these bridges with a long clear span was the Burr arch-trusses. Additionally, McCall’s Ferry Bridge was recognized as the only covered bridge, which had the longest single span in Pennsylvania.

The bridge was built in 1815 by Theodore Burr and its clear span was 360’. Although this magnificent bridge was destroyed by ice, three years after its completion, other covered bridges with arch-spans were later constructed. It is therefore believed that Nicholas Powers based his design at North Blenheim on these early bridges (HAER NY 11). The image below shows Blenheim Bridge:

Description

The total length of the Blenheim Bridge was 232’-0” with a clear span of 210’. In terms of height, the bridge was 24’ high from the deck to its roof. In addition, it had a width of 26’-3” with every roadway measuring 10’-2” between the trusses, which lied on the sides of the arch.

Based on the measurements, which were taken in 1936 by the Historic American Building Survey, the framing timber that was used was from local white pine while the shear blocks, splices and prestressing wedges were mainly from the local white oak (HAER NY 6). On the other hand, the bolts and the tie roads were wrought iron while the washers were mainly made of cast iron.

As designed by Colonel Stephen Long in 1830, the truss had four upper parallel lines of planks together with wooden fish splices. These splices were bolted at each panel point and mid panel-point. On the other hand, the lower chord was made of four parallel lines of planks, which had fish splices in the same manner as those for the upper chord.

There were also posts of paired timber measuring approximately 7?7”, forming a total of twenty two panels, which were spaced at 10’-0” on the center. The main purpose of these chords was to permit the connection between the upper and the lower chords. Additionally, the bridge had braces of paired timber, measuring approximately 5?8 and unpaired counter braces, which were approximated to be 4.5?8”, existing between the posts (HAER NY 6).

With regard to the measurements of the posts, it is worth noting that the dimensions of braces and posts decreased in size, starting from the end of the trusses towards the center of the designed span. This was strategically designed in order to take into consideration the force exerted by different forces. As a result, this neutralized individual stresses, thus contributing to the formation of an effective and stable structure.

In connecting the posts, they were passed through the lower chord after which they were set into notches. After this arrangement, they were fastened using bolts of approximately 0.75” in diameter. Additionally, the counter diagonals were notched into the lower and upper plys of the arch.

In order to realize stronger joints, there were wooden wedges placed in the joints between the posts and the bottom side of the counterbraces (HAER NY 6). The main function of the wedges as prescribed by Stephen Long was to prestress the truss during construction.

It is worth noting that the massive arch was designed to appear in the same plane with the counterbraces of the truss, which was located at the center of the bridge. It was mainly made of three plys of wood, which measured 9.5?10.5” and were separated by use of spacer blocks. Moreover, the timbers attached on each ply were spliced together, while the three plys were fastened at the bridge braces and the support posts.

On the hand, the arch of the bridge sprung from skewbacks placed at angles on the abutments. Of importance is the fact that these skewbacks were made of stone before they were replaced with concrete. These allowed it to rise 30’ to the ridge, spanning 210’ (HAER NY 6). During a major repair that was done by Milton Graton in 1973, he revealed that the arch was made of different types of wood. Graton said that the designer had used spruce arch timber and the white oak in order to promote effective reinforcement to the structure.

Another important feature of the North Blenheim Bridge, which requires description, is the floor. The floor of the bridge was covered with wooden floor beams, measuring 4.5?10. These beams firmly rested on the lower chord of the bridge, forming part of the floor system (HAER NY 6).

The main reason why Nicholas Powers included the beams in his design was to support the wooden plank deck. Furthermore, the design allowed the lower lateral bracing to be jointed between the lower chords. Additionally, tie rods were added at the end of each panel point to allow complete reinforcement. The image below shows a complete view of the bridge:

Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Old_Blenheim_Bridge_Alternate_11Mar2008.jpg

If it were built today

There is no doubt that if the North Blenheim Bridge was to be constructed in the year 2012, it would present a different structure all together. This is mainly due to a wide range of factors including but not limited to change in technology and availability of several building materials (Tang 46). For instance, while the Blenheim Bridge was mainly constructed using wood, modern bridges are steel-made, due to the existing high demand and usage of steel around the globe.

Since the introduction of steel as a core construction material, there has been significance transition in bridge technology. For instance, current bridges are constructed using steel plates as girders, steel bars for concrete reinforcement, steel cold for cables and steel wires prestressing (Tang 57). In addition, due to the introduction of new technology, construction has become expensive.

Conclusion

From the above descriptive analysis of the Blenheim Bridge, it is evident that its history remains magnificent in wood technology. The architectural design of Nicholas Powers remains outstanding even in the 21st century. Despite the fact that the bridge was destroyed in August 2011, it influenced many structural engineers in exploring wood technology. This will equally inspire generations especially in the same field.

Works Cited

Dillon, James 1983, Old Blenheim Bridge. PDF file. 21 Apr. 2012. .

HAER NY 2006, Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record. PDF file. 21 Apr. 2012. .

Tang, Man-Chung 2008, Evolution of Bridge Technology. PDF file. 21 Apr. 2012. .

History and Development of Ballet

Ballet appeared as a distinctive form of dance in Italy sometimes before the sixteenth century. It initially involved movements, music and special effects that were integrated together. The first dance that was performed in France was organized by Balthasar de Beaujoyeux, a violinist and it was known as The Comic Queen Ballet (Lee, 40).

This became the production of the dance, the court ballet (ballet de cour), and an earlier and initial version of the current / modern ballet. This production influenced a sixteenth century entertainment known as masque in an English court that was characterized by dance interludes (Lee, 91). In 1588 Orchesographie became the first piece on ballet dancing.

The major ballet dance development occurred in the 17th century in France. During the initial stages of this development at around 1610, the divertissements scenes came into being and resulted into the grand ballet. In 1661 and 1669 the Royal Ballet Academy and the Royal Music Academy respectively were founded by Louis XIV (Lee, 66).

The Royal Music Academy later transformed into the Paris Opera to later become the foremost National Ballet School in 1672 ( Lee, 71). The performances were mainly carried out by male dancers in which the female roles were played by boys in masks and wigs (Lee, 53).

The first ballet of a kind that incorporated trained female was the 1681 Triumph of Love that involved music by Lully. During this period until 1708, ballet continued to be a court display and involved drama or opera. This was followed by the first public performance commissioning of ballet (Lee, 58).

Afterwards, ballet was infused with new ideas which saw it develop as a distinct art. However, the court ballet maintained its historic conventions. It is during these times that they saw the beginning of the choreographic notes and the legendary themes.

A ballet school based in Italy brought in great influence that resulted in more elevated movements while the horizontal movements became less. The five classic positions of a dancer’s feet were developed by Beauchamps (Lee, 75). These positions form the strength of the dancer’s movement and stance.

There was a shift from earlier cumbersome costumes to newly designed ones that allowed for greater and unrestricted movement. Some of them include slippers, short tight skirt as well as heelless shoes. This style became popular from the second century courtesy of Duncan Isadora.

It was not until 18th century when d’action principles were brought about in the letters on ballets and dancing by ballet master (Lee, 110). His intentions were to shape ballet in such a way that it tells story with music, dance and decor as aiding tools. He wanted more of a dance, facial and body expressions.

To emphasize on naturalism, Noverre abolished the use of mask at around 1773. This was followed by other major innovations by several artists as well as technical innovation within the field of dance movement due to the continued alteration of the ballet attire (Lee, 111).

This was followed by a romantic period which formally began in 1832 after the production of La Sylphide (Lee, 135). This ushered in a new epoch that was characterized by brilliant choreography that stressed on beauty and proficiency of the prima ballerina. Ballet dance adopted filmy and calf-length costumes.

The new ballet involved the conflicts of flesh and spirit, reality and illusion. Legendary themes were put an end to and their place taken by fairy tales and love stories. During this period, a dancing style commonly referred as sur les pointes became favored by many and by the end of this century, there was the emergence of tutu, a short and buoyant skirt that ensured the legs were free. Costume sets and the choreography stopped being interesting and the imaginative feel required in ballet had been lost (Lee, 151).

The modern ballet period followed. This has seen major development in countries such as Russia, Britain and the USA. The Russian ballet has greatly developed with figures such as Sergei Diaghilev being hailed for their contribution. Russian dancing has for some time now been to its highest level and boasts several top ballet companies (Lee, 301).

The British ballet has not been left behind and the period between 1918 and present day has witnessed several transformations (Lee, 278). In 1930, Ballet Club was founded while the now famous Royal Ballet was established a year later. Through Royal Ballet’s efforts, the world is slowly giving male dancers an added colorful showcase (Lee, 278).

In the USA, the American Ballet company was founded in 1934 which was followed by a first major school that helped to develop the talents of several famous American dancers (Lee, 312). Several companies have since then been created and via formal training and movement, choreographers from US have come up with new style of ballet that depends less on literary plot but more on electronic and modern rock music. The costuming and decor has been greatly simplified.

Works Cited

Lee, Carol Ballet in Western Culture: A History of Its Origins and Evolution. London: Rutledge, 2002.

Rhetorical criticism of the Titanic

Criticism is the act of a person determining the psychological response of an individual by using symbols or speech. The critic analyzes symbols, words, phrases, and images that can be used to undermine a persons’ emotional response.

Thesis: Titanic is mostly considered to be a love story. The film portrays love of two people from different social classes. Titanic also features the story of the first cruise ship which was the biggest and the best in the world in that time.

In the first scenes of the film, we see Rose trying to commit suicide in order to evade a forced marriage.
Jack, one of the young men from the lower deck, is there to save Rose’s life.
Jack and Rose develop a friendship
They walk round the ship and explore all the hidden areas
The people of the high class treat and see the employees and people from the lower societies
There is a description of how the food service and the cleaning of the rooms are done as well as the privileges given to the elite on board

Conclusion: Rhetoric criticism is a tool used by people to enslave people and keep them in their mercy. It is a weapon that is the most effective as the parties involved receive the desired outcome. However, in the Titanic, we see Jack being able to handle the amount of pressure inflicted on him.

Rhetorical Criticism

Criticism is the act of a person determining the psychological response of a an individual by using symbols or speech. The critic analyzes symbols, words, phrases, and images that can be used to undermine a person’s emotional response. critic could be positive or negative. When it is meant to approve the work or something, the rhetoric figures used in speech sound in a polite manner, and sometimes, they are used to show that the critics want to help a person consider the need to change certain aspects in his/her lives.

On the other hand, rhetoric criticism may be used to injure the emotions of a person. Such a manner of communication humiliates an individual and can be referred to the way the wealthy slave owners would speak down on their slaves in order to show the owner’s control and power over those subdued people. It also happens with people in different economic classes.

Rhetoric criticism also shows a discrimination against the other people not equal in rank by those who consider that their high social status gives them the right to be arrogant. This is depicted in the manner in which they speak and treat other people. The way they communicate as well as their speech should reflect their superiority in order to maintain their social status. We view the acts of rhetoric criticism in the Titanic movie.

Titanic is mostly considered to be a love story. The film portrays love of two people from two different social classes. Titanic also features the travel of the first cruise ship which was the biggest and the best in the world in that time. However, regardless the love story and the ship itself, there are some scenes that show severe cases of criticism occurred in that society. Firstly, the ship was divided into sections where the people from low class were only allowed to be on a lower deck of the ship.

This was just the first sign of discrimination which also reflected in the privileges offered on the ship (Anderson 45).. It is, however, noted that those people on the lower deck enjoyed the cruise more than those on the upper one. The thing is that those people were mainly immigrants from Europe seeking for a better life in the USA, thus they considered it a real success and honor to get on that ship, while the elite did not feel the same excitement (Temple 10).

In the first scenes of the film, we see Rose trying to commit suicide in order to evade a forced marriage. She leans forward on the edge of the ship trying to fall in the water. Jack, a young man from the lower deck, being on that deck pulls her back on the ship and saves her life.

The guard on duty that night accuses Jack of trying to molest Rose as he heard some screams. This judgment is the one that is past to Rose’s fiancee. He admits that that is the thing one can expect of a person from a lower social level. However, after Rose tells them what happened, Jack is set free.

Rose’s fiancee offers him a twenty dollar note as a reward for saving his future wife’s life. He also asks him a rhetorical question if twenty dollars would be enough for him. This is one of the instances of rhetorical criticism in the movie. It shows that elite think that people of Jack’s social status can be easily paid off for any action or favor their do as the best regard for them is money, and they are not worth respecting or approving.

It also implies that Jack always needs the money for settling some bills. Such a humiliated form of speech is mostly carried out in the presence of other people in order to lower the self-esteem of a person addressed. It is a play to ensure that an individual is humbled and cannot do a thing but to serve the one humiliating him/her. Thus, Jack has no power over the flow of the events. Even when he does an act of good will, he is still considered an immoral person because of his background (Eaton and Haas 12-14).

In another scene, we see Jack and Rose developing a friendship based on their common love for art and music. They walk round the ship and explore all the hidden areas. At one point, Rose invites Jack to dinner with her family and friends. Jack is not used to such a kind of dinner as he has to wear a suit and well prepare for an event in advance.

Rose’s close circle worries of her socializing with people of a lower social level. This leads to a number of questions on Jack’s background and his knowledge on finance and politics. This is a plot to embarrass him more in front of Rose. However, we see Jack taking a stand on his background and answering all the questions quite intelligently.

As dinner is about to end, Rose’s fiancee makes a comment on that Jack cannot join the company of men because of his background as they are going to another room where they enjoy their cigars while discussing their business. Jack then invites Rose to go with him to a lower deck where they have a party after dinner. We see a huge contrast between the two societies. On a lower deck, Rose is invited and welcomed by all the people. She is able to socialize without any hurdles (Barczewski 21).

There are other scenes in the film where the people from the high society humiliate the lower paid employees. This is seen in the way the food service and the cleaning of the rooms is done and the privileges given to the elite on board. In todays’ world, ships are still divided into sections from first class to coach; however, there is minimal or no interaction between them as they respect each other.

However, in the days of Titanic, elite was used to entertain themselves by making fun of people of a lower class. Some of them would also go as far as to parade them and then ask them rhetoric questions so that they would entertain themselves on how they would answer their questions (Rasor 15).

Rhetoric criticism, as we have seen, is a tool used by one people to enslave the other and keep them in their mercy. It is a weapon that is the most effective as the parties involved receive the desired outcome. However, in Titanic, we see Jack being able to handle the amount of pressure inflicted on him. He is able to resist the people who are humiliating him and make a stand against a criticism concerning his background.

Besides being a love story, Titanic is also a story of how a young man is able to stand his ground and believe in himself. We also see how rhetorical criticism is used to enslave people in the early nineteen century. This story goes beyond the basic story and features the strength of the ship and a touching love story. It also shows a story of betrayal, deceit and hatred but most of all, Titanic is a story that covers some basic issues of life of that time and how one can overcome them.

Works Cited

Anderson, Brian. The Titanic in Print and on Screen. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. 2005. Print.

Barczewski, Stephanie. Titanic: A Night Remembered: Centenary Edition. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. 2011. Print.

Eaton, John, and Haas Charles. Titanic: Triumph and Tragedy. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 1995. Print.

Rasor, Eugene L. The Titanic: historiography and annotated bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. 2011. Print.

Temple, Bob. The Titanic: An Interactive History Adventure. Minnesota: Capstone Press, 2008. Print.

Information Technology changes in Business: Strategic IT analysis

Introduction

The MCDM (medical device contract manufacturing) Inc was established in 1972. The firm is involved in “contract manufacturing and packaging services of the medical devices industry” (Jeffery and Norton 2).

The company has its headquarters in the United States, although it operates other 19 subsidiaries in 35 cities. The company “specializes in medical device contract and manufacturing and assembly, clean room medical injection molding, and design and fabrication of specialty assembly equipment for medical device manufactures” (Jeffery and Norton 2).

In the 1980s, the firm was among the largest corporations in the industry owing to its success in manufacturing medical devices and customer satisfaction. The company promised to offer more to its target market in comparison with its competitors. In 1974, MDCM held 42 percent of the U.S market share and by 1985, it had grown to over 54 percent (Jeffery and Norton 3).

The company’s success was boosted by small business acquisitions leading to consolidation and further expansion in the US market. Between 1989 and 1990, MDCM lost its major four out of ten consumers and as a result, the company witnessed a massive decline in profits and revenues. Profit margins began to fall as a result of buyers’ consolidation.

The firm’s pricing power was lost as it could no longer compete with other players in the industry on pricing strategy. The company’s market share and profits continued to decline up to 2000 when the management decided to make modifications to reduce internal costs, increase the flow of information, and increase its efficiency.

The adoption of information technology enables an organization to cut down its operational and internal costs. Consequently, opportunities are realized in three major ways which are business/organization portfolio, competitiveness, and internal costs. Briefly, competiveness means the extra advantage associated with the development of IT leading to a competitive advantage.

Internal costs imply the process of improving effectiveness and efficiency of a company thus cutting down costs. Lastly, business portfolio refers to the adoption of IT and its influence on the decision making process of potential investors.

Strategic objectives of MDCM

Based on the case study, the current strategic goals of MDCM are to cut down its operational costs, make information available to different departments in real-time, increase market share, be a market leader of the industry, and reduce internal costs (Jeffery and Norton 1-5).

At the moment, the primary strategic objective of MDCM Inc is to cut down the production costs incurred in the process of producing medical merchandise. The case study highlights that reduced costs could be achieved through internal costs as some of the problems noted result from internal environment. For example, the company lacks a proper network system which could be used to connect all the 19 subsidiaries in 35 countries.

This has resulted in increased operational costs (Jeffery and Norton 3). The firm’s operating system is outdated and it causes delays in relaying information to the MDCM employees. Lastly, the company lacks a standardized and proper email system that can be used to communicate with its employees. The legacy of the current system increases administration costs such as duty, financial, custom sales, and inspection systems.

The other noted strategic objective is to increase its market plan and go global through internationalization and globalization. It is important to note that at one point, the company was the largest market shareholder in the medical services industry (Jeffery and Norton 2), but this has since declined. The company once had a market share of 54 percent but due to a decline in its competitive advantage the share decreased (Jeffery and Norton 3).

Due to the aforementioned reasons, the company is planning to increase its market share and going global in order to realize market diversification. The company has the strategic objective of becoming a market leader in a market that it once dominated. The company is therefore on a mission to realize the benefits associated with investing in the IT sector in order to add value, increase profits, and expand its market share (Jeffery and Norton 8).

Competitive environment in which the firm operates (a competitive forces analysis)

MDCM operates in a competitive industry whereby the company is involved in contract manufacturing and packaging services of medical devices (Jeffery and Norton 2). However, in the past four quarters, the company has been reporting losses. In a competitive market like the medical devices industry, making such losses could be detrimental to a company in the long run.

To better determine the competitive environment in which the DCM firm operates, Michael Porter’s 5 competitive forces of market analysis have been adopted. The five forces include presence of potential entrants, presence of perfect substitutes, traditional competitors, suppliers, and bargaining power of buyers/consumers (Porter 12). The forces are presented in the diagram below.

Figure 1: Porter’s 5-Forces Model