Comparing and Contrasting Good and Evil

Introduction

The essay is a critical examination of how evil and good are portrayed in two literatures; Shakespeare’s The Tempest and Poe’s The Fall of the House of Usher. The Tempest is thought to have been written between 1610 and 1611. The story revolves around a remote area in which Prospero the main character is trying to ensure that together with his daughter they get back what is rightfully theirs.

Ideally the play lets the reader know that Miranda and her father were kicked out of their rightful position by Antonio, Prospero jealous brother. This leaves them stranded for 12 years and Miranda’s father is working day and night to reclaim their deserved position. Through such efforts, it is evident for the reader to clearly see through Shakespeare glasses the manner with which good and evil as themes are clearly depicted (Shakespeare par.5).

The second literature that will be used is The Fall of the House of Usher written by Poe. It is a short story of Gothic horror narrated in first person. The work was published back in 1893. In this gothic story, readers are told of the family of Usher; Roderick and his twin sister Madeline.

The two suffer from a disease which is unknown and cannot be cured. Their transgression which includes mental illness and incest are clearly brought to light by the author. To successfully accomplish this task, it would be rational to provide an understanding of the terms evil and good. In this context good will refers to that which is morally right. This means that good is that which helps and does less harm to others in the society.

On the other hand, evil is that which is not morally acceptable. It is an act of not being concern about others as well as knowingly and intentionally seeking to harm the interest as well as welfare of other human beings. It is worth to acknowledge that there is a controversy between good and evil and as suggested by other scholars hence difficult to determine whether one is evil or good (Herman 234). However, for the purposes of this paper every act will be analyzed independently.

Portrayal of good and evil in ‘The Tempest’

In the play The Tempest, Shakespeare has managed to clearly depict evil and good through characterization. It is through such characters as Prospero, Miranda, Ferdinand, Alonso, Ariel, as well as Antonio among others that the audience can see good and evil as intended by the author (Cantor 106).

In the beginning of the play readers are made to clearly understand that Prospero’s jealous brothers with the assistance of Alonso who was the King of Naples was toppled and set adrift with his daughter who was only 3 years old. This is an evil and inhuman act done to him and his daughter. The main reason that drove Antonio to do this was because of his selfish interest in gaining power to rule the people of Milan. This is shown in the following line

[Wow, is it exposition time already? Okay, kiddo, listen up: I used to be the duke of Milan, but then my asshole brother and the King of Naples put you and me on a boat and we ended up here]

On the other hand, through secretly supplying the boat used by Prospero with adequate food, water, clothing as well as books from his study room, Shakespeare manages to make readers understand that this was a good act. This was done by Gonzalo who was counselor to the King. Another act of evil is depicted when Ariel was trapped in a tree. This was the work of Sycorx who was a witch who trapped the later for his own selfish gain.

Despite his help to Ariel and teaching Caliban religion and other important things such as language, it was evil for Prospero to enslave Caliban and Ariel and later took power ad controlled the people living in the island. This is exemplified in the words said by Caliban, “You taught me language; and my profit on’t Is, I know how to curse: the red plague rid you, For learning me your language” (Cantor 71).

Similarly another act of evil is portrayed through an attempted rape where Caliban attempted to rape Miranda. Shakespeare wanted the audience to know how some evil acts are directed to certain gender. It is worth noting also that evil can be done by a group of people. The author makes the readers understand that the rebellion planned by Caliban, Stephano and Triculo failed (Graff & Phelan 49).

It is indeed difficult to establish whether it was good or evil for Prospero to raise tempest through his magic making the ship carrying his brother Antonio, Alonso, Gonzalo and two of Alonso’s brother sons to capsize. However since he did this to revenge, it was an evil act as portrayed by the author.

Shakespeare has tried to make readers hold the view that the acts of the various characters resulting to a good or evil activity is largely motivated by how every person perceives his position relative to those of other characters. Interestingly, the concept of evil and good has been successfully portrayed through the various themes in the poem. For instance, it is due to power that the readers are able to establish the motives behind the actions of Prospero and his brother Antonio (Grant 89).

Portrayal of good and evil in ‘The Fall of the House of Usher’

In this story, the author manages to bring the concept of good and evil in a completely different way when compared to the first article written by Shakespeare. Nonetheless there are instances where there seems to be some similarities. It is worth noting that Poe managed to use imagery to bring about the concept of evil (Kennedy 47).

For instance, it has been widely accepted that darkness is associated with evil things. In the beginning of the story the narrator while visiting his friend describes the surrounding and he uses the following words, “During the whole of a dull and soundless day……. When the clouds hung oppressively” (Krutch 62) this clearly depicts that there was an act previously committed that was morally wrong.

Additionally the narrator describes how the house of his childhood friend looked like; he said “I know not how it was – but, with the first glimpse of the building, a sense of insufferable gloom pervaded my spirit” (Kennedy 74) It is no doubt that Usher residence was one place that a lot of evil had taken place that even a new visitor will be met with a sad environment.

Additionally Poe manages to portray evil by making the narrator fully describe how the house of the Ushers looked like. This not only depicted the nature of evil but also its consequences; it fully destroys a family. The decaying and crumbling building symbolizes the effects of evil (Auberlen 207).

[I looked upon the scene before me – upon the mere house, and the simple landscape features of the domain – upon the bleak walls – upon the vacant eye-like windows – upon a few rank sedges – and upon a few white trunks of decayed trees – with an utter depression of soul which I can compare to no earthly sensation more properly than to the after-dream of the reveler upon opium – the bitter lapse into everyday life – the hideous dropping off of the veil.

There was iciness, a sinking, a sickening of the heart – an unredeemed dreariness of thought which no goading of the imagination could torture into aught of the sublime] (Poe par. 6).

Through the narrator and Usher Roderick the readers are made aware of incest in Usher’s family. Upon arrival of his friend, Usher makes his childhood friend understand that the illness he is suffering from is a ‘family evil’ (Walter 98).

The narrator since was a long-time family friend to the Ushers, clearly knows that the family did not allow any member to be married by other members of the society and for that reason they engaged in inbreeding. This led to a very weak blood-line of the family since the family became one and the same genetically. As a result majority of the family members died due to complications related to inbreeding leaving only Usher and his twin sister who are also suffering from a deadly disease (Corben 153).

Through Madeline, the nature and effect of evil is depicted. She also suffers from serious disease that is unknown and incurable. Madeline and Usher engaged in an intimate relationship despite the fact that they were siblings. Similarly the cries heard while the narrator was loudly reading a story to comfort Usher as well as the crumbling and submerging of Usher’s house is a symbol of evil (Poe, par. 12). This is supported by the following.

[…my brain reeled as I saw the mighty walls rushing asunder – there was a long tumultuous shouting sound like the voice of a thousand waters – and the deep and dank tarn at my feet closed sullenly and silently over the fragments of the “House of Usher] (Poe par. 40)

This is the ultimate punishment for engaging in morally unacceptable activities. It is also worth noting that through Usher, his act of prematurely burying his twin sister was morally unacceptable. Interestingly, through paintings and music, the author manages to use these tools to bring out the concept of evil and good.

Concerning morally acceptable deeds, the narrator has taken the duty of heeding his friends call. He pays Usher a visit since they were childhood friend. It is through the narrator that we see that he takes the responsibility of staying; talking and comforting Usher who was very seek. Additionally the narrator helped Usher lay the body of his sister in a tomb within the family house. From the short story it is apparent that the issue of evil outweighed good (Poe par. 3).

Conclusion

From the review of the two stories, The Tempest and The Fall of the House of Usher, it is evident that the theme of evil and good are clearly depicted. However the authors used different mechanisms to accomplish this. Shakespeare managed to use characters to portray good and evil.

For instance it is through the main protagonist Prospero that other characters are developed conveying the same themes. On the other hand, Poe used imagery and symbolization, painting, music and first person narration through an unnamed narrator to portray good and evil. For instance Poe uses terms such as ‘mansion of gloom’, ‘a ghastly pallor of the skin’, and ‘darkness’ among others. This makes readers understand all these are linked to evil activities.

The common ground to both the authors is with regards to theme development, where the evil and good are manifested through characters. Although the authors used different mechanisms to portray the theme of evil and good, readers are able to appreciate these classical works. From these two classical works, it is apparent that evil is bad and leads to serious consequences.

Works Cited

Eckhard, Auberlen. “The Tempest and the Concerns of the Restoration Court: A Study of the Enchanted Island and the Operatic Tempest”. Restoration: Studies in English Literary Culture, 1660–1700, 15.1 (1991): 71–88. Print

Cantor, Paul. “Shakespeare’s The Tempest: The Wise Man as Hero”. Shakespeare Quarterly, 31.1 (1980): 64–75. Print.

Corben. Richard. Edgar Allan Poe: The Fall of the House of Usher and Other Tales of Terror, London: Del Rey, 2005. Print.

Graff, Gerald and Phelan, James. The Tempest: A Case Study in Critical Controversy, London: MacMillan, 2000. Print.

Grant, Patrick. The Magic of Charity: A Background to Prospero, Oxford University: Oxford University Press, 1976. Print.

Herman, Barbara. The Practice of Moral Judgment, Harvard University: Harvard University Press, 1993. Print.

Kennedy, Gerald. Introduction: Poe in Our Time, collected in A Historical Guide to Edgar Allan Poe. Oxford University: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.

Krutch, Joseph. Edgar Allan Poe: A Study in Genius. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1926. Print.

Poe, Edgar. “The Fall of the House of Usher”. 2008. Web. 7 Mar. 2012.

Shakespeare, William. “The Tempest”, 1986. Web 8 Mar. 2012.

Walter, Evans. “The Fall of the House of Usher’ and Poe’s Theory of the Tale.” Studies in Short Fiction, 14.2 (1977): 137–44.

Persuasive Essay: How to Choose a Major

Choosing an academic major, the students make one of the most important decisions in life. It is a complicated issue which is influenced by a number of aspects where gender one is the most significant. Such issue includes the psychological process of selecting the academic majors from the position of the gender stereotypes. Although gender rights and ability to choose the education and work are equal in the modern society, the gender aspect is still has a serious impact on the people’s choice, including the choice of college major.

Thus, according to the most widely spread stereotypes, girls rather choose humanities than technical majors or math, while boys prefer the sciences, technical subjects and IT. However, I think that the statement that girls and boys have the different ability to study technical subjects is incorrect due to a number of examples of successful women-scientists.

It is the absolutely illogical position, as the present aspect is based on the personal skills and inborn patterns. Therefore, analyzing the current situation within the educational system from the position of the gender stereotypes, it is necessary to develop the solution which should step-by-step improve the situation.

The most appropriate measures are the providing of the seminars for school students when the teachers could emphasize an importance of the personal choice in spite of the stereotyped opinions. As the students will comprehend that the decision-making process should be independent and based on the personal skills and desires, they will choose those majors which can help them to increase the inborn talent.

Therefore, it is necessary to change the stereotypical view of the gender definition of the sciences, developing the governmental programs which would guarantee the equality of every students no matter of gender and to provide the lessons and seminars for students, indicating and unmasking the gender stereotypes as a cause of the significant impact on the process of choosing a major.

It is obvious that the choice of a major is a one of the most important decisions in life. St. John says that “there is, perhaps, no college decision that is more thought-provoking, gut wrenching and rest-of-your life oriented – or disoriented – than the choice of a major” (22).

Most of the students make their choice not only because they do not want to study math or languages or, vice versa, they want to investigate the concrete subject. The foundation of the psychological aspects within the process of choosing a major indicates that the gender stereotypes have a significant influence on the students’ choice.

Thus, there is a widely spread belief in the society that boys are better in sciences and various technical subjects than girls. As it is a well-known fact that girls have more developed left cerebral hemisphere, while boys have right, many people suppose that girls should choose humanities such as literature, languages, psychology, etc. In every situation when the girl chooses the technical studies, math or chemistry, there are the doubts about an ability of female to cope with such sciences.

On the other hand, there is a stereotype than females are better teachers and psychologists than males due to the natural skills to comprehend the emotions and feeling of others and ability to teach children.

However, the simple analysis demonstrates than this statement is absolutely wrong, as there are different examples of the great male teachers. Besides, the majority of the famous psychologists are males. Therefore, I am sure of the necessity of explaining of this issue for students who is ready to make a choice of a major.

The present issue requires the development of the measures which could reduce the disbalance and stereotypes within the educational area. The research of this problem demonstrates than the issue needs more strict developmental solutions.

Many researchers emphasize that the gender stereotypes and gender equality are the parts of the international promoting programs which claim the importance of parity and the personal rights, including the choice of educational majors, in spite of the stereotypes. Thus, Subrahmanian says that gender parity and equality within the education are the international development goals (396). The author analyses the work of The Dakar Framework for Action which contains the gender-based goals.

First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the gender inequality on the different levels of educational system, including the primary and secondary education. According to the researcher, a gender perspective within the educational system includes such elements as “learning content, teaching method and process, subject choice, assessment modes, management of peer relationships and learning outcomes” (Subrahmanian 403). Thus, it is possible to notice that subject choice is one of the key elements of the gender equality.

According to Bennett et al., the current situation within the educational system demonstrates the presence of such characteristics as “politicians’ concerns for the country to remain globally competitive through scientific innovation delivered by a skilled workforce; lobbyists’ campaigns for equal rights for women employees; and female academics’ challenges to the cultures and practices of their own science disciplines” (2010).

Moreover, the authors emphasize the feminist perspective which has a significant support. From this point of view, there is no problem for the students to choose that major which they want no matter of gender.

However, as this situation is typical for United Kingdom and Ireland, a number of other world’s communities demonstrate the different statistics where the gender factor is significant. The researchers suggest the political debates as the one of the measures which can improve the problem of the gender stereotypes within the educational system.

All children should have the same access to the educational programs and subjects. Although this problem is not significant in the Western countries, it is one of the major aspects of the Eastern societies and especially in the Middle East where females have fewer abilities than males.

Providing of the equal access to the scientific disciplines will help students be more acquainted with the subjects and will help them to choose a major. Such problematic should be discussed on the various levels, including the ministers and governments and the national and international committees. As the ministries of education will comprehend the problem, they will develop the measures to improve the situation and to change the stereotypes.

I see the development of seminars and lessons in the schools as the major step of improvement of the situation. One of the solutions is the creation of a list of recommendations for students.

This list should include those elements which will emphasize the equality of males and females in the process of choice of a major and an importance of the personal skills and inborn talent as the basement of the choice. Besides, I would like to provide the particular examples, for instance, the successful male teachers and female-physicists. Such obvious examples are more effective and convincing than the theories.

Reading the information about the concrete scientists, the students will feel freer and more assured of their choice of a major. For instance, the information about Sofia Kovalevskaya and Marie Sklodowska-Curie among many other women-scientists will demonstrate that students should easily choose chemistry, math or physics as a major, in spite of the gender stereotypes.

At the same time, the information about successful male teachers or designers will help males to follow their desire to study such “female” disciplines as literature or art. Although it is a well-known fact that men are better chefs than women, most of the male students do not want to study this discipline, in spite of the skills and desire.

Besides, they are better fashion and interior designers. Although it seems absolutely female deal to teach children, cook and express the emotions, men can get more success as the teachers and artists. However, most of the time, they are scared to be mocked or misunderstood as well as girls are afraid to choose the technical majors and, as the result, to be misunderstood and do not be treated seriously.

The school seminars should demonstrate that both genders have the same rights within the choice of the academic programs and it is not shameful to follow the dreams. Moreover, it would be appropriate and effective to invite the practitioners form the different areas in order to show the students that it is possible to get the success in every field, in spite of gender.

As the result of the seminars, the students will be able to get the feedback from the professionals. Thereby, it is necessary to make those studies more practical than theoretical. As the theory can be good, while making the research and investigating the problem, the practical examples are more effective and convincing in the process of decision-making.

Considering gender as one of the major issues that has a significant impact on the process of choosing of an academic major by students, it is necessary to provide the measures which should improve this problem. Thus, the possible solution can be found in development of the educational programs by the governments which will guarantee the equal rights and parity within the educational system for all students.

This issue should be discussed within the political and social debates in order to improve the problem of the gender stereotypes as one of the key elements of choosing a major. It is necessary to provide the possibility of choosing any subject no matter of gender of the student. Besides, the school program should include the seminars and lectures where the students will be able to get the information about the different subjects which can be chosen as the majors.

Additionally, such seminars will provide an opportunity to learn about the particular examples of males and females who got the success in the various fields of science. As the students will get the chance to meet with the professionals, they will comprehend the necessity of the choice of a major, according to their natural talent and skill and no matter of gender.

Works Cited

Bennett, Cinnamon, Marina Larios, Louise Norman and Emma Parry 2010, Meta-analysis of gender and science research – Country group report: UK and Ireland countries. PDF file. 07 Mar. 2012. .

St. John, E. “Majors.” Black Issues in Higher Education, 17.4 (2000): 21-27. Print.

Subrahmanian, Ramya. “Gender equalityin education: De?nitions and measurements.” International Journal of Educational Development 25 (2005): 395–407. Print.

The Business Environment

(1) Every business requires finances in order to continue operating, make new investments, and expand its operations, or carry out any other activities in which it may have an interest. Many are the times when resources are not readily available and, businesses resort to borrowing in order to finance these activities.

Different banks and financial institutions provide varying loan services to their clients/borrowers. The American Bank (n.d) has various financing options, and they are tailored to suit the different needs of the borrowers.

The bank offers what it calls ‘term loans’ to businesses that intend to borrow for purposes of acquiring business equipment, real estate, or meet any other needs of the business (The American Bank, n.d). This type of financing targets big businesses and, repayment is on long term basis. It also has construction loans that are offered to businesses wishing to expand their operations.

This product is available to small, medium sized and big businesses for purposes of construction. The Small Business Administration loan service targets small businesses, both new and ones that are established. It requires a significantly smaller amount of money as down payment, has attractive interest rates and the repayment period is longer as compared to other loans (The American Bank, n.d).

(2) When the Walt Disney Company decided to enter the Chinese entertainment market, it encountered numerous challenges. Overcoming the cultural barrier was one of them (Nickels, McHugh, & McHugh, 2010). The company was concerned that the Chinese would not readily embrace something that was so ‘American’. The company also faced a language problem. Concerns were raised about the possibility of rejection by locals, since they had not been exposed to Walt Disney before, and they also spoke a different language.

The company made several decisions in order to overcome these challenges. It hired locals to work on the project, since they knew the local culture, language and they also knew what the Chinese liked and disliked. They were well versed with the tastes of local people and their advice on certain decisions was invaluable. This decision was also made for financial reasons. The company realized that Chinese labor was cheaper than American labor, and, therefore, the project would cost much less if the Chinese were hired (Nickels et al., 2010).

(3) Scientific advancements in the Information Technology field have had significant effects on the work environment. These effects range from the way people communicate, interact, and even carry out their duties. Most of the functions have become digitalized, and computer knowledge has become essential for one to work efficiently in this age (Lau, Wong, Chan, and Law, 2011). Communication in the business world has probably been the biggest casualty, and it has changed tremendously.

Businesses have moved away from written communication when necessity does not demand it, and phone calls, emails and text messages are now the preferred modes of communication. The reason for this is the high speed with which the information is relayed and responses received. Information technology has made it possible for people to attend meetings without being physically present, through the use of video conferencing technology (Lau, Wong, Chan, and Law, 2011).

Many individuals are able to work from home, and be able to perform their duties as if they were present at the work place. Video calls and emails are often used to link employees to their offices, and they can work even when travelling. These are just some of the changes that developments in Information Technology have brought to the work place and the way people work.

References

Lau, T., Wong Y.H., Chan K.F., & Law, M. (2011). Information Technology and the Work

Environment-Does IT Change the Way People Interact at Work? Human Systems Management Journal, 20(3), 65-93. Retrieved from http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/ios-press/information-technology-and-the-work-environment-does-it-change-the-way-dEdGbyeOpI

Nickels, W., McHugh, J., & McHugh, S. (2010). Understanding Business. London: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

The American Bank. (n.d). Leap Forward With an American Bank Term Loan. Retrieved from https://www.americanbank.com/business/loans/term-loans

Improvement of Communication Strategies

Abstract

This paper is aimed at identifying strategies that firms can utilize to improve communications channels with its employees. The introduction gives a concise explanation of communication process in an organization. It then identifies obstacles faced by employees in firms. Using the theories identified by research recommendations explain viable strategies for organization are given. All this information then form the basis for conclusion that is also given in the paper.

Introduction

In organizations, communication is the process by which information is passed from the top-level management that is comprised of the CEO and the Board of Directors down to the other subordinates and vice-versa. The significance of communication is any institution is to ensure that the recipient of data fully understands the information given. The main medium for communication in organization is people i.e. among managers, subordinates, customers etc (Gibson & Hodgetts 1999).

One form of communication is known as interpersonal communication. This form of communication exists between two or more people. It involves transfer of information from one person to another. The category receiving information is known as receivers (recipients). In any communication process, transmitter sends information to recipients in a construable format. The process in which receivers translate data is known as encoding. This is normally done through variable formats namely; visual, oral, written, etc (Baker, 2002).

Transferring data from a sender to a receiver is enhanced through a medium known as channel. Some channels viable in business enterprises are fax, telephones, internet services, etc. Transference of data requires the receiver to interpret information. This is a process known as decoding. The final stage of a communication process requires the receiver to confirm the information sent to them. They may also be required to act upon the information and give back data to the sender; this is known feedback (Baker, 2002).

Issues Faced by Employees

Language and Cultural Difference

In general, the process of communication may encounter barriers that make the process ineffective to both the receiver and the sender. These barriers that cause interference to the communication process are known as noise. One of the factor that causes information to qualify as noise is the issues of language and cultural differences.

Foreign language from any party involved in the communication process causes the misunderstanding amongst all parties. This is because none of them can encode or decode information (Gibson & Hodgetts 1999).

Environmental Issues

The other issue that may affect the process of communication is environmental issues. If the environment of recipients or transmitters is full of sound passing information may be impossible. Background noise from either machinery, colleagues etc causes messages being passed not be understood fully. Similarly, channels issues may affect the process of communication. Example of this is the use of faulty fax machines, eligible handwriting etc (Baker, 2002).

In the organization structure of modern societies, communication is encompassed in both formal and informal structures. These various forms of communication play a significant role of disseminating formal information between managers and subordinates. Due to the diversity of communication, firms have faced the challenge of managing these myriad communication channels so they can be utilized to improve customer relations (Gibson & Hodgetts 1999).

Perpetual Barriers

Some of the issues faced by employees in an organization include perpetual barriers. This exists especially between members of self-directed groups or virtual teams. It is expressed by different of opinions from members of a specified group (team).

Varied perceptions held by individuals need to be addressed in order for the communication process to be effective. Additionally, physical barriers are other issue faced by subordinates. Studies have revealed proximity has played a major role in improving communication networks in business firms (White & Chapman, 1996).

Physical Barriers

This therefore means that closed doors and cabins present in higher management levels of organizational structure have limited interaction among subordinates and their leaders. This consequently limits effective communication. Furthermore, cultural barriers have also interrupted communication process in the modern societies.

This is especially demonstrated with the increasing rate of globalization that has allowed individual from diverse social background to interact more freely. A cultural barrier is mainly stipulated when employees of a firm belong to different religion, social, educational and national background (Lauring, 2007).

Leading Communication Theories

Human Relations Theory

Theories have been developed to resolve issues of ineffective communication process in organizations. One of these studies is known as human relations theory. It emphasizes its focus on human aspects of business. It develops strategies that aim at utilizing human as a valuable resource of any business operations. It provides that managers should consider restructuring business operations in a way that focuses on employee relations (Bratton & Gold, 1999).

It states that organizations should invest time and money onto the development of their employees. This can be done through formulating training programs into the business operations of the firm. This will help communicate to employees the nature of their tasks, missions and visions of the organizations as well as elucidate what is expected of them.

Additionally, the structure of the organization should be such that employees seeking career growth and development are satisfied with their respective working environment (Bratton & Gold, 1999).

This theory encourages management to develop a business environment that fosters on employee valuation. This instills an atmosphere of trust, respect and mutual co-operation for employees. Human management theory also recommends the organization to empower their subordinates. This increases productivity through motivation.

Organizational Theory

Organization (communication) theory is the second theory that addresses the issue of communication in an organization. It holds that communication process as a science that leads to greater efficiency and productivity. This theory incorporates Fredrick Taylor thoughts on scientific management.

He advocates for selection of personnel scientifically through advertisement and recruitment. Again, the states management should select one ‘best way’ to complete activities allocated to employees. This reduces work stress through avoiding task ambiguity. It is the duty for managers to develop strategies and the workers will implement these plans. Moreover, they should develop compensation plans for production and not position of workers (Pearce, 1994).

According Max Weber, bureaucracy is an efficient way of improving the communication process between managers and workers. This is because the hierarchical nature of communication network is clearly stated by the order of authority. The system also states the ‘universal’ system of rules completely. Again, theory holds that promotion and selection of candidates should be based on technical competence (Pearce, 1994).

Motivational Theory

Motivational theories also makes a contribution to effective communication process. It’s comprised of expectancy theories, equity theories and reinforcement theory. These theories focus on the behavioral aspects of employees. According to Adams S.J. workers compare potential rewards and appraisal systems to their efforts. This means organizations should formulate equitable rewards systems to effectively enhance communication (LittleJohn & Foss, 2008).

Goal Setting Theory

Goal setting theory was developed by Edwin Locke in 1960. He held that for organization to effectively communicate to employees, goals should be stipulated. This helps explain to employees exactly what is required of them. This strategy forms a basis for motivation for employees to work prudently in their areas of specialization (LittleJohn & Foss, 2008).

Example of Organizations with effective Communication Networks

Coca Cola Company

An example of an organization that has utilized effective communication network is the Coca Cola Company. This organization was started in 1944 with John Pemberton as its founder. Since then the organization has extended its subsidiaries in over two hundred countries across international borders (Harris, 1993).

The company uses both self-directed teams and virtual groups in its business operations and effective communication networks have enabled the firm to expand its business operations across the countries. Effective communication has cause management of the firm to clearly define the mission of the organization as well as its visions and goals. Additionally, it has disciplined the company to formulate objective that is line with these set objectives (Harris, 1993).

In order to reduce chances of role ambiguity, the organization has taken all its employees through training sessions. Initial training session is done at the early stages of working after candidates have been recruited for job posts. These training sessions continue at intervals during seminars, mentorships, etc.

The purpose of these training sessions is to reinforce the objectives of the organization among its subordinates. It is also aimed at improving productivity of employees through specialization since training teaches employees on their tasks (Hargie &Tourish, 2009).

Through the use of virtual groups and self-directed teams, Coca Cola Company empowers its employees across different geographical areas with specified tasks. Empowerment of employees has significantly helped in the effective communication of the firms goals. This is because allocation of specified has enabled the team members to sufficiently encode and decode messages before giving feedback. Similarly, it has acted as motivating factor and this has increased productivity of subordinates relatively (Harris, 1993).

Again, the Coca Cola Company has improved its communication network over time. They have developed intra-communication networks that pass information to employees within a specified subsidiary. This type of data does not leak out to the public but rather remains among members of the organization. They use channels such as memos, telephones, fax etc (Baker, 2002).

They also use inter-communication network that pass information from management to different stakeholders of the firm. Some of these stakeholders include government, shareholders, suppliers, etc. This kind of information is important as it notifies stakeholders on the various aspects of the firm’s position e.g. financial reports give the valuation of the firm.

This is important for stakeholder who needs to make decisions concerning the firm. Here, techniques such as emails, newspapers, etc are used as a media for communication (Baker, 2002).

Wal-Mart Stores

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc that was founded in 1962 by Samson Walton is another example of an organization that practices effective communication process. This multinational corporation runs discount warehouses and stores across countries globally. In 1987, the organization launched American’s most largest private satellite communication system.

The main task of the satellite is that it linked all the operating units of the organization. It was comprised with one-way video communication and a home office with two-way voice (Miller, 2012).

Like in Coca Cola Company, the use of virtual teams and self-directed groups have a played a key role of reinforcing the objective of the organization. The business environment of Wal-Mart Stores is such that employees are provided with career and professional development. This is not only described in training sessions but also in the contracts of employees. Individual with a specified working experience and educational background, they become potential candidates for promotions (Miller, 2012).

The significance of this is that attitudes of employees, which can act as obstacle communication, are receptive to orders. This is because workers put more effort in order to be awarded more responsibilities and benefits as they continue climbing up the management ladder. Reward systems are other techniques used by the Wal-Mart organization to motivate employees.

This system is such that individual employees are recognized for achievements enhanced with a working environment. Departments, subsidiaries, groups etc are also recognized by the management of the firm for excellent performances (Miller, 2012).

Recommendation

For an organization to improve employee communications, various steps should be taken. First the organization needs to recognize the importance of employees as an important aspect of human resource. This should be done through analyzing existing trends, attitudes and process of communication existent in the working environment.

Secondly the firm should clearly define the hierarchy of management. If an organization has a narrow organizational structure it means that decision-making process is concentrated on the upper levels of management. Therefore communication strategies in this case, should aim at having low bureaucratic process. For instance if emails are used as channels for information the copies of messages of messages should be forwarded to all heads of departments (D’Aprix, 1996).

If an organizational structure is relatively flat, it means empowerment of employees is vast. The management should then ensure that selection of employees is based on technical performance, production and not through positions. Empowerment can be facilitated through sub-dividing subordinates into virtual teams and self-direct group. Assigning specified tasks to these groups motivates the employees and gives them a sense of trust and responsibility.

Conclusion

Effective communication in any organization requires the subordinates to understand core goals and strategies of firms. For this to be successful it is important for firms to utilize recommended techniques to achieve desired outcomes.

References

Baker, K.A. (2002). Organizational Communication. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Bratton, J.& Gold J. (1999). Human Resource Management Theory and Practice 2nd Edition. ND: Mark Millan Press Ltd.

D’Aprix, R. (1996). Communicating for Change – Connecting the Workplace with the Marketplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers

Gibson, J.W., &. Hodgetts, R.M. ( 1999). Organizational Communication – A Managerial Perspective. 2nd Edition. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

Hargie, O. & Tourish, D. (2009). Auditing Organizational Communication. Washington: Blackwell Publishers.

Harris, T.H. (1993). Applied Organizational Communication. ND: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Lauring, J. (2007). Obstacles to Innovative Interaction. Denmark: Arhus University.

LittleJohn S.W. & Foss, K. A. (2008). Theories of Human Communication. NY: Thomson Cengage.

Miller, K. (2012). Organisastional Communication and Processes Approaches and Process 6th Edition. London: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Pearce, B. (1994). Interpersonal Communication: Making Social Worlds. New York: HarperCollins.

White, K.W. & Chapman E. (1996). Organizational Communication – An Introduction to Communication and Human Relations Strategies. Needham Heights, MA: Simon and Schuster Custom Publishing.

Introduction to Management

Emerging Issues That Will Affect Business in the UAE

One emerging issue that businesses in the UAE must deal with in the future is localization. Multi-National Enterprises (MNEs) face the challenge of making their business operations local to effectively compete in the UAE business environment. There are laws in the UAE governing aspects of localization for MNEs.

However, their implementation is somewhat ambiguous. Thus, companies rely on the need to realize economic returns as a factor influencing their localization policy. Unfortunately, the present situation allows some MNEs to avoid the localization of their operations. Moreover, those that succeed in implementing localization may not go as deep as it is necessary to maintain their competitive strategies in the end.

Localization differently affects various companies. First, in the UAE, the government through its agencies is the biggest consumer of products and services in the economy. Companies that encourage the employment of UAE citizens and subcontract their work to native companies have a higher chance of doing business with the government.

The lucrativeness of government contracts in the UAE force many MNEs to hire local staffs. Not all MNEs will survive the dynamic market of the country if all they do is hire local staffs. The UAE continues to emerge as a force to reckon in the global business environment. As it rises, its citizens and laws also evolve to provide better control and management the economy.

MNEs that early adopted the concept of localization have an advantage over new companies, which are copying an already existing trend. For the former, their need to realize economic gains prompted them to develop strategic plans in accordance with their strength and weakness analyses. However, the latter only adopt localization policies to copy their competitors.

Copying strategies of another company in the same industry does not guarantee the effectiveness of those strategies in the future. The late adopters of localization have to deal with the emerging risk of becoming irrelevant in the changing market. The UAE is likely to develop professional bodies and associations that will stress the need for the adoption of local practices among MNEs. Thus, the companies that fail to support the localization projects are already jeopardizing their future operations.

Management should understand that the achievement of external legitimization by recruiting native nationals reduces their risks as they compete with homegrown firms (Forstenlechner & Mellahi, 2010). For example, in the financial industry, the human resource pool of resident banks now contains a significant number of local nationals.

By default, the banks have a greater appeal to local customers. The indigenous appeal overrides customer levels of investment or their financing needs. It has only been a decade since the same banks had a staff pool made up of foreign nationals (Forstenlechner & Mellahi, 2010). Therefore, localization is a challenge for multinationals seeking to have a lasting presence in the UAE. They should concentrate on the long-term rather than blindly copy their peers.

Another emerging issue for business in the UAE is finding a cultural balance between their expatriate workforce and their local counterparts. Most multinationals doing business in UAE come from western countries whose liberal culture is different from the Islamic culture of the UAE.

Adaptation to local cultures is the key to successful marketing of products and services of a given company. Unfortunately, most expatriate workers are not keen on changing their cultural behavior while working in the UAE. The rigidity to change presents public relation managers of these companies with a challenge of defending the local aspects of the MNE brand.

Over 80 percent of the UAE population consists of expatriates. The high number of foreigners working in the country presents companies and organization with challenges of not only coping with local cultures, but also adapting to the cultures of the various foreigners in the country.

People from dissimilar parts of the world have their own ethical attitudes. While the attitudes of all the foreigners may be the same towards business, they are different in terms of community values, leadership preferences and favored forms of compensation. Human resource managers have to grapple with the issue of attracting top talent from a diverse population of both foreign and local nationals.

The economic development of the UAE creates new industries and transforms existing industries, as they become more mature. The development results into an increase in the demand for skilled workers. As the demand rises, businesses realize that their preferred nationals do not possess all the skill-sets needed for particular jobs.

Thus, the businesses have to recruit staff from different nations other than their own. One consequence of external recruitment is the change in the business culture, which might affect how the business delivers products and services.

Moreover, the inclusion of employees from diverse cultures makes it hard for human-resource managers to motivate staff. The level of motivation corresponds to the resulting performance by employees in a firm. However, the multicultural dimensions emerging from the recruitment of diverse nationals and marketing products to dissimilar residents removes the possibility of using one strategy of motivation.

As a response to the above issue, management should not seek to impose new cultures on the market and on its workforce. Instead, it should place mechanisms within the organization that promote learning and cultural exchange. Feedback from the market should inform future marketing strategies to make sure that the company remains competitive and relevant. The inclusion of different nationals should also happen at management levels as the company grows to ensure that it does not show prejudice tendencies.

Processes and Techniques to Override Resistance to Change

To minimize resistance to change, there should be adequate communication channels between management and employees. Proper flow of information within the company leads to timely resolution of disagreements. In addition, it makes it easier and faster to announce changes that affect the entire company.

Although companies have various reasons for their existence, the main reason is usually the making of profit. Profit making comes from the sale of solutions that fulfill a market need. Today, knowledge transfer and new technology remove the barriers of entry to the manufacturing business.

Existing companies have to develop additional values for their products in order to remain marketable. To make the organization ready for change, management should construct value-added service-awareness processes in the operations of the company. Every staff should understand the company’s desire to enhance its value in the market.

The management should approach the change process as a partnership with its staffs or customers. Therefore, it should ask them to offer suggestions that will ease the transition from product orientation to service orientation. Having the customer on board gives the impression that the company values them.

The impression is in line with the overall objective of the change process. During consultations with employees and customers, the management should talk about past behaviors of either party. Thereafter, it should embrace what is common and use that to drive an alliance for change.

All parties need to know that change is a gradual process in large organizations, and this will help reduce any reluctance when there are no immediate results to show. Competition depends on more than the price of products. Changing the interaction with consumers will only work when a change in the organizational culture accompanies the process. Thus, the leadership should lead by examples. To infuse new habits to the organization, there should be oversight management in every interaction point in the company.

Moreover, during the implementation of change, management should control the flow of information. For instance, information concerning failures of certain processes or negative remarks about the intended results needs proper handling. Mistakes and other challenges need a well-managed crisis response to prevent panic and withdrawals (Bacon, 2007).

Clear communication and often leaves little room for mistakes and quashes resistance. Management should understand and embrace the following three levels of transition. The first stage should be to destabilize the existing behaviors in the organization.

During this phase of the change, all communication and management tasks should focus on unlearning the past culture of the organization. Here, management presents staffs with an opportunity to understand the prevailing behavior patterns so that when it comes to changing, they know the points to tackle.

After the unlearning part, management moves to the second stage of moving staffs or customer to new behaviors and expectations respectively. In this instance, the strategies that infuse different behaviors will be helpful.

The company leadership can modify reward systems and management styles to reflect the fresh direction of the company. For example, managers can introduce a bonus system that prompts employees to test new approaches and offer relevant feedback to earn points. They would redeem the points using various options such as off days or lunch with senior leadership.

The last part of the change process involves the cementing of new behaviors and processes. Novel codes of conduct, work procedures and communication channels should become part of the institution. Management can announce to employees, and to the market that the company has changed. Thereafter, every aspect of the company structure and brand should embrace the new customer orientation.

During the change process, employees, management, customers and shareholders will behave as groups. Communication should prevail among the various groups on how changes will affect them. The best way to reach each group is by using narratives that will stimulate dialogue.

Although it is a slow process, the resulting dialogue allows management to remove all preceding behaviors in the group and introduce new ones. In addition, narration through various forms such as literature, audio and video are memorable. Therefore, it is possible for management to refer to them in the future as a way of handling any resistance that emerges (Bjurklo, Edvardsson, & Gebeur, 2009).

Managers should avoid fighting the symptoms of resistance that come up during the transition. The handling of symptoms presents immediate results but still leaves the transitional process vulnerable. Therefore, workers should work on solving structural problems that will eradicate symptoms and increase efficacy and output.

Management should believe in the economic potential of offering more services and encourage their employees to create apt means of extending the proposed service component. Thus, the firm should free its employees from current business tasks and move them to service delivery. Properly assigning employees their roles reduces the risk of product quality deterioration due to the transition (Gabauer & Friedli, 2005).

A company may follow the processes outlined above; however, if it does not perfectly define service, then all transition efforts will be futile. There should be a clear distinction of product and service within the company and the definition of the latter should provide a tangible and meaningful association for employees.

Having a transition system allows the firm to achieve the significant differentiation of products as platforms, which enable the creation services as the value-in-use that the customer experiences. The systems enable the application of deeds and processes that give meaning to service (Bjurklo, Edvardsson, & Gebeur, 2009).

Three Factors for Consideration When Adopting a Particular Leadership Style

In a particular session, the leadership style is a summary of the behavior patterns that one shows when dealing with a specific group. Repetition of the equivalent leadership style when dealing with the same group or related groups of people results to a dominant leadership style. The following are factors to consider when assuming a particular leadership style.

First, the leader should understand that followers react according to how they perceive a particular style. Therefore, leaders should put into consideration, not what they believe is their leadership style, but what it means to their followers.

Leadership in organizations revolves around the attainment of anticipated results from followers, thus factoring in their perception of the style is mandatory for one to expect the desired cooperation. Before choosing a leadership style, the leader must understand the concerns of his or her followers. The sustainability of the group led by the leader depends on the perception of satisfaction by its members.

Second, the leader must know the level of maturity his or her group is before choosing a style. There are several stages in the development of groups. In between stages, groups rely on others and have different leadership needs. Typically, a group will move from being dependent, to counter-dependent and finally independent.

In the first phase, the group solely relies on the leader. Here, the group members need guidance on what to do and how they should serve the group. In the next phase, there are power struggles and faithful rebel against the leader’s authority. Individual members in this stage try to lead their colleagues. Finally, in the last phase, the followers are mature and work together to achieve common goals of the group. Individual efforts receive the desired recognition, and the need for leadership is minimal.

Third, the personality of the leader matters when he or she is choosing a leadership style. People tend to choose a leadership style that identifies with their preferences and behavioral tendencies. Even when one receives the necessary exposure to different leadership styles, they would still use a specific style in all situations if they feel that it serves their roles. Often leaders will go with the style that they are already known for, so that they do not appear to be pretending.

For example, when considering group maturity as a factor, a leader can choose an autocratic style or a task-directed style because a group depends on its leader. In addition to providing direction, the leader uses a hands-on approach to supervise tasks and handle inquiries.

The dependent group has many queries and requires powerful gestures to maintain civility; hence the option of choosing an autocratic leadership style. On the other hand, for an independent group, there is a slight need for leadership. An autocratic or task directed style would work detrimentally to the progress of the group. Instead, a democratic style that allows members to assume temporary leadership roles would be beneficial to the independent group.

Another example in accordance with the first factor presented above comes from research done by Ehige and Akpan (2004) in Nigeria. The scholars found out that the leadership style of a particular organization determines the effectiveness of rewards offered to employees.

In the study, the scholars confirm that the perception of employees on the leadership style matters when it comes to their motivation. When employees perceive the leadership style of the organization to be mindful of their concerns, they are likely to work well with minimal reward systems. On the other hand, if the leadership style is out of touch with employees, then the organization will need additional rewards to receive the same level of cooperation from employees.

Using the above findings, the researchers recommend that organizations should train their leaders to use low maintenance styles if their organizations have the funds to offer high rewards to their employees. Conversely, if there are insufficient funds for great incentives, then the organization will have to rely on the perception of the employees on leadership as a way of motivating them. In this case, the leader should adopt a high-upkeep style, which assures employees that their needs are always under consideration (Ehige & Akpan, 2004).

References

Bacon, T. R. (2007). Driving cultural change through behavioral differentiation at Westinghouse. Business Strategy Series, 8(5), 350-357. doi: 10.1108/17515630710684466

Bjurklo, M., Edvardsson, B., & Gebeur, H. (2009). The role of competence in initiating the transition from products to services. Managing Service Quality, 19(5), 493-51. doi: 10.1108/09604520910984346

Ehige, B. O., & Akpan, R. C. (2004). Roles of perceived leadership styles and rewards in the practice of total quality management. The Leadership & Organizational Developmental Journal, 25(1), 24-40. doi: 10.1108/01437730410512750

Forstenlechner, I., & Mellahi, K. (2010). Gaining legitimacy through hiring locals at a premium: The case of MNEs in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of World Business, 46(4), 455-461. doi: 10.1016/j.jwb.2010.10.006

Gabauer, H., & Friedli, T. (2005). Behavioral implications of the transition process from products to services. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 20(2), 70-78. doi: 10.1108/08858620510583669

Fallacies in the media’s spotlight

The mass media has been our reliable source of information and entertainment. In addition to providing the society with entertainment, the media has continuously educated and provided us with both old news and latest happenings from all corners of the world. Due to its ability to capture our attention and communicate to us about what is happening in our surrounding, the media has enabled the world to become a global village.

The media has focused on providing the public with news, which captures the attention of different audience. In its attempt to keep the society informed regularly, media representatives such as journalists have done everything to enlighten us about the most captivating stories. By so doing, the media has created spotlight fallacies. In this discussion, I will focus on how the media is full of fallacies.

Fallacy in the media’s spotlight is a situation in which the public makes a general assumption based on how much a particular topic in the media receives coverage. The television is one of most common forms of media and almost everybody around has a TV set at home. Unlike internet, Television is common and many people can access this technology easily. With a Television, an individual can be able to know what is happening in his surroundings.

However, most of the media coverage is fallacious. In its attempt to provide the public with news and entertainment, the media tends to cover events, which are less likely to occur and are not even common in real life situation. In fact, the media has made this error in many cases. Because of this, many people actually believe that those events that are regularly reported by the media are common in real life situation. Well, this is not true in most cases.

To support my argument, I will provide several examples and explain them as I explore the topic extensively. To begin with, the media seems to cover those stories that are interesting especially those that are likely to capture public attention. One example of a common story in the media is crime.

The media has a tendency of covering stories about crime making the public to have the perception that crime is very rampant in the society. In most cases, we see and even read from the media about crimes happening in the streets of New York. Because of this, we assume that New York City is the most insecure place in the world. However, because the media does not report on non-crime cases in New York City, we tend to have the perception that New York City is a very dangerous place. Without a doubt, this reasoning is fallacious.

Another example is how the media portrays cases of school shootings. The media tends to focus on this topic so much that parents are worried about issues of security and safety of their children. When a single case of shooting happens in our schools, the media tends to emphasis and focus on this event to a point that the public assume that cases of school shooting are very common. Reasoning this way is categorically fallacious. However, the truth of the matter is that cases of school shooting are very rare and only few happen in a year.

Another story that has hit the headlines of newspapers and our Televisions is the issue of plane crash. Time to time, the media has focused so much on cases of plane crashes more than cases of car crashes. In fact, quite a good number of individuals are so scared of flying due to overwhelming coverage of such events whenever they happen.

Whenever such an event happens, the media focuses on it so much that we the public tend to believe that cases of plane crash are rampant and common. Reasoning this ways is fallacious. The truth is that cases of cars crashing are so common more than cases of plane crashes. In fact, an individual is more likely to die in a car than in a plane.

Lastly, people love to hear stories of hope. Because of this, cases of miracle are mostly reported on the media. If you turn on your TV on a Sunday morning, you are more likely to see miracles happening almost everywhere around the world.

However, it is very hard to find stories on the media about people who have been prayed for but later died. In most cases, we only assume that when people are prayed for, they are healed completely. The spot fallacy in this case makes us believe that when people are prayed for, miracles happen and such individual are healed completely.

In summary, fallacy in the media’s spotlight is the assumption that what is widely covered on the media about certain category is a representation of the whole group. This perception and picture portrayed by the media is sometimes very misleading. This is because the public tend to believe in what is portrayed by the media. The truth of the matter is that, what is commonly covered by the media does not necessary reflect real life situation.

What is a pirated movie?

It is important for us to ask ourselves what pirated movies are. Essentially, pirated movies are movies which are counterfeit in nature. This means that they are movies which have been illegally obtained and reproduced by a group of people or individuals.

This is usually done with the intention of getting these movies out for circulation and distribution without obtaining the correct distribution rights. Piracy has got harmful and negative effects on both the movie industry and the entire economy. Effects of pirated movies It is important to take note of the fact that any movie or music which has been pirated has got effect on the industry as well as the entire economy as well.

When a movie which has been produced is pirated and sold without the recommended rights, then the people who took the initiative to produce the movie are deprived off their rights and they are denied their profits. It is worth noting that movies require huge amounts of money to produce.

This notwithstanding, the man power involved in the production of these movies is vast (Avery). This means that if all the movies which have been produced would be pirated, then there would be no income to produce more movies. Consequently, the people who have been employed by this industry would end up being jobless. In this case, the movie industry would be closed down thus resulting on causing harm on the economy.

In one off the studies which were carried out, a respondent claimed that as the music and film industries accounted for a significant proportion of the GDP of some European economies, any shrinkage of the sector due to piracy would have national, rather than simply industry, implications, especially when reduced taxation revenues are taken into account.

In this respect, recent EU data indicates that the copyright industry (which covers music, film, software and books) contributed EUR1 200 billion the EU economy, produced value added of EUR 450 billion, and employed 5.2 million people in the year 2000 (Avery).

The total gross value added, which measures wealth added to the economy, represented more than 5.3% of the total value added for the (then) 15 EU member states. In terms of employment, the industries contributed 3.1% of total EU employment (Avery). This is a significant economic contribution of the EU, and would be paralleled in other economies, especially the USA, which highlights the potential broader economic losses that could flow from extensive activity by pirates (Avery).

Technology and Piracy As was the case in the music sector, the rapid evolution of affordable powerful computers, and the growing availability of DVD-R burning machines, which permit home computers to copy video content just as easily as audio, means that both sectors are now exposed to similar risks from both large scale and small scale pirates (Avery).

The availability of sophisticated camcorders has also given the pirates the opportunity of copying new movies directly from their very first screening; thus allowing pirated copies to hit the streets more quickly than ever before.

In other words, the experiences of the audio have been repeated in the video sector; that is, the ready availability of pristine original material and the growing capacity of pirates to copy material by either using reasonably priced commercial reproduction equipment or personal computers as a small scale enterprise. In addition, the rapidly growing ability to move video content around the internet has made access to content and distribution of pirated items erasure, and their detection more difficult (Avery).

These developments have been unique to the music, film and software industries, and while the development of technology has not been the only reason for the growing incidence of piracy, the technological capability that is within the reach of virtually anyone with a computer has made these industry sectors more vulnerable than most to counterfeiting or piracy.

Piracy Kills innovation In the current age, watching and downloading a movie from the internet seems to be one of the easiest options to get quality movies cheaply. However, this has had detrimental effects especially with regard to the impact that this is having on the degree of innovation and creativity in the industry (Avery).

Piracy stifles creativity and innovation when the person who invests heavily is not compensated for the efforts. Essentially, most of the creative and innovative minds within this industry have ended up without jobs due to the fact that their jobs are threatened. In addition, piracy denies the creators to risk big by trying new initiatives in the movie industry. This is because one feels that if the movie does not get an opportunity to market itself then the project might end up being a loss on part of the producer.

The movie companies and record labels spend many years trying to sell their brand or label. But the moment that a pirate steals the creative genius behind this product, then the company runs into heavy losses. Conclusion The general public might not have adequate information regarding the nature of crime that piracy is. Furthermore, many consumers feel that piracy has little impact on the multinational film companies. This is a misleading notion.

There is need to ensure that the public is made aware of the harmful and negative effects that piracy has on the movie industry and what needs to be done to ensure that this vice is mitigated. The lobby groups should step up their efforts towards ensuring that the right policies and regulations are put in place to protect the movie and the film industry from the pirates who want to take advantage of the advancements which have been in this industry.

Works Cited

Avery, Peter. The economic impact of counterfeiting and piracy, New York: OECD Publishing, 2008. Print.

A punitive Environment Fosters Children’s Dishonesty: A Natural Experiment

Purpose o the Study

The purpose of the study was to establish how a punitive environment promotes children’s dishonesty. The research accomplished this by comparing three and four year old children from West Africa. These children were either from punitive or nonpunitive typeof schools in order to determine their behavior in lie telling.

The study accomplished this by leaving them in a room with a toy and by instructing them not to peek the toy. Importantly, core purpose of doing this was to establish the difference in behavior that can be exhibited by children from punitive and from nonpunitive environments (Talwar & Lee, 2011).

Significantly, the study intended to study the theme of deception which is taken to be a common phenomenon in nature. This is so since all living things right from primates to insects to plants have their devised ways of mimicry and camouflaging in order to avoid their predators in the environment (Talwar & Lee, 2011).

It is understood that that deception is a concealment adaptive strategy that is normally adopted by the weak in the environment to avoid any physical violence. For that matter, the study intended to study deception paradigm through temptation resistance.

Moreover, it has been assumed that punitive environment promotes dishonesty in children but it is an assumption that has never been determined experimentally. For that matter, the study aimed at studying the assumption by experimenting children’s deception behavior while factoring in the natural differences that exists in a West African environment (Talwar & Lee, 2011).

For that case, deceptive behaviors between two different groups of children were used in the study to determine how a punitive environment promotes children’s dishonesty. One group of children was from a punitive school that used stern authoritarian model while the other group was from nonpunitive private school that did not use strict authoritarian model.

Method of the Study

The study used a total sample of eighty four (84) children from schools in West Africa. Children from punitive schools formed half of the sample while the other half came from nonpunitive schools (Talwar & Lee, 2011). This sample was settled on after stratifying the study population into two strata of punitive and nonpunitive.

Importantly, informed consent was sought from all participants who participated in the study. From the two strata in the population, it was established that punitive schools kept log book of their disciplinary practices while the nonpunitive schools did not keep record of their disciplinary practices.

In addition, in terms of the procedure of carrying out the study, the research employed experimental method. This was done by the experimenter observing the behavior of the children in order to determine their dishonesty that resulted from dishonoring instructions given. Consequently, it came out that the school effect was far beyond and significant above the effect of age group.

Result of the study

The results showed that sex did not have any difference hence the sex factor was not considered in the analysis. It was therefore established that the school effect had the biggest determining factor as compared to age and sex (Talwar & Lee, 2011). As a result, the study found out that punitive school contributed 11.78 times in lying than those in nonpunitive school. In addition, the research established that a punitive environment besides making children dishonest, they also make them lie in order to conceal transgressions.

How the Theme of the Study is Relevant to Nature and Nurture

According to Meissner (2009), the behavior of a person is determined hugely by nature and nurture factors that normally present themselves in the growing environment of an individual. These factors involve the innate, inherent and upbringing qualities in the environment.

For that matter, Kassin, Meissner and Norwick (2005) concurs with the study since a punitive environment which fosters children’s dishonesty is part of the nature and nurture factors that a child is raised in. the dishonest behavior exhibited by the children in the study is a clear indication that a flawed character is largely contributed by inherent factors that the child is raised up in.

Moreover, it must be understood that the behavior of the children in the study were completely different depending on the type of the natural factors of the environment that they were raised up and with the nurture factors that presented themselves in the environment.

For instance, the nature factors of one group of children who exhibited high degree of dishonesty were from the public schools. These schools were characterized by harsh conditions as compared to the other half who were from the private schools with relaxed and more comfortable conditions.

Consequently, children from poor background families who were from public schools exhibited high degree of dishonesty. This implies that these nature and nurture environments are determinants of the behavior of an individual. On the other hand, children from private schools are from rich families and their schools again do not provide harsh environment.

For that matter, they demonstrated low degree of dishonest. This is a clear indication that punitive environment fosters children’s dishonesty hence being closely related to nature and nurture factors.

How the Theme of the Study is Relevant to Socio-cultural Context

The degree of dishonesty demonstrated by these two groups of children clearly demonstrates that there is a direct relationship with the socio-cultural context. This is clearly indicated from the punitive environment where by its socio-cultural context is characterized with poor family background.

As indicated in the study, the physical environment is full of hardships which have in turn impacted negatively to children’s behaviour. Moreover, the punitive environment is further characterized with punitive laws and policies that are closely related to the socio-cultural context. This is so since some socio-cultural environments may consist of punitive laws and policies.

On the other hand, none punitive environment is related to a socio-cultural context that is characterized with wealthy families. As demonstrated in the study, nonpunitive environment consists of institutions that do not apply strict disciplinary measures to its pupils as it is the case in punitive environment.

As a result, it is imperative to acknowledge that punitive or non punitive environment is closely related to socio-cultural context that an individual is being nurtured in. For that matter, in the long run, the socio-cultural context determines a child’s behaviour to a large extent.

Follow-up study that I will conduct given the findings of this article

Importantly, from this study, it is significant to come up with a follow up study given its results. For that reason, a study on titled “How Age Influence False Confession” will be important to explore further the behavior demonstrated in the study.

False confession has been elevated in children more than it is to adults. Some studies have been conducted to establish factors that have influence on why people confess falsely (Meissner, 2009). Meissner continued to postulate that two boys aged 7 years and 8 years were charged with murder of an 11 year old girl after they were offered a good meal by their interrogator.

In the latter case, the good meal acted as an inducement for the two boys to false admit to a crime that they had not committed. This explicitly shows that children can be easily influenced by some enticement to plead guilty to cases they have not committed than it is to adults.

In addition, the police officers employ psychological manipulations in their interrogation techniques in order to obtain confession from suspects. It is therefore common knowledge that it is easy for the police officers to manipulate psychological minds of younger children than they will do to an adult (Kassin, Meissner & Norwick, 2005).

The psychological manipulation by the police enables them to drive children to their indented answers which in the process make these children to falsely confess to crimes and acts that they have not done. It is much easier to twist psychological mind of the young ones than adults.

Suggestibility is another factor that brings difference in terms of age in falsely confessing. Interrogators use suggestion techniques in their interrogation. This has always led to internalization of the suggestions given by the officer which results to false confession on part of the victim.

The rate of suggestibility by the police is therefore more effective in children as compared to adults since most children have no mental power to analyze suggestions fronted by the interrogator. This makes them to fall prey of suggestibility hence being victims of false confession to crimes that they have not committed.

Moreover, children by nature are obedient to authority. Interrogators represent authority and therefore in most cases, children falsely confess to them as a sign of obedience. In psychology, obeying authority is a powerful phenomenon which children are taught from their young age and a morally upright child will grow up obeying any figure that represent authority in society (Conti, 1999).

This finally cost them as they incriminate themselves by pleading guilty to crimes they have not committed. For that matter, it is therefore important that a study be carried out on “how age influence false confession”. Therefore, the research question for this study should be “How does age influence false confession in an individual?”

Nonetheless, the methodology for this study should employ a participatory approach of observation of the juvenile from the age of three to the age of five and also of the young adults and elder people. The juveniles should be from elementary school, young adults from post secondary institutions and adults from homes for the elderly. Nonetheless, all these strata should be sampled using random technique in order to be non bias.

References

Conti, R. (1999). The Psychology of False Confessions. The Journal of Credibility Assessment and Witness Psychology. 2(1), 14-36.

Kassin, M, Meissner, A. & Norwick, J. (2005). I’d know a false confession if I saw one: A comparative study of college students and police investigators. Law & Human Behavior, 29, 211-228.

Meissner, C. (2009) False Confessions. Applied Criminal Psychology: A guide to forensic Behavioral Sciences, 3(12), 191-212.

Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2011). A punitive environment fosters children’s dishonesty: A natural experiment. Child Development, 82, 1751-1758.

Key functions and roles of the top management, middle and first-line management of Infoscape Technologies and Saudi Telecommunications Company (STC)

Infoscape Technologies

Infoscape Technologies is a novel technology firm focusing on the hospitality industry in the UAE region. It focuses on providing software solutions to the hospitality industry. Mainly, it provided solutions in Guest Incident Management, HR administration, concierge management system, and Hotel Service Optimization System. Vinod Philip, who is currently the CEO, started the company in 2008. The company has several middle level managers, director of sales, project manager, HR and financial officer.

The CEO is the overall manager in charge of the operations of the company. The CEO is responsible for strategic leadership in the company. The CEO, in collaboration with other senior level managers, has the task of devising policies for implementation within the company.

Since its inception in 2009, the company has grown in many dimensions; this includes an increase in the customer base and an increase in program outputs. The CEO offers guidance in what products the company distributes from other companies and sets targets for the percentage of products the company will market under its own brand. The number of high-level collaborations has increased as well as the output of Infoscape branded products.

The CEO maintains discretionary authority on decisions concerning which products the company markets from outside. The CEO also represents the company in industry conventions, within and outside UAE. The CEO receives reports on the progress of the company form the different departments and charts new course for the company. He also provides decisions on expansions; for example the decisions to expand to India.

The other mid-level manager is the project manager. The project manager is in charge of all projects undertaken by the company. The company deals with installation and maintenances of software solutions in the hospitality industry; consequently, all the functions of installation and maintenances fall under the office of the project manager. The projects manager oversees the implementation of projects related to varied technology products.

This includes presales, execution, training, project management, and support. All the activities pertaining to customer satisfaction fall under this office. The project manager has duties comprising of designing, instituting, and evaluating the progress of projects. She is in charge of monitoring the productivity and motivation of her workers. She also handles customer complains concerning the company products or products marketed by the company.

The director of sales deals with all marketing activities in the firm, which includes both the company brands and external brands. The manager has the charge of overseeing effective collaboration between his company and other company in marketing partnerships. He furnishes the CEO with information regarding the market requirements and recommend solution products. He has to keep the sales personnel motivated and productive. The other managers assume the roles designed for their departments in the same manner.

First-line managers include the assistant technical consultant, Robson Correa, and the personnel manager. The assistant technical consultant answers to the project director and is responsible for the providing consultation to company staff working in various projects. The personnel manager oversees the welfare of company personnel. This includes workstation transportations, complaints, leave, and general employee issues.

STC

STC is a Saudi-based organization dealing in telecommunications. It was established in 1998. It operates through five operations units dealing in voice calls, data, internet, business, and mobile services. It has 21,190 employees and a market capitalization of SAR 79.8 billion (Zawya, 2012).

In 2011, the STC publicized its new organizational structure. The structure comprised of divisions descriptive of KSA Operations, Strategic Operations, and Technical Operations. The Group CEO, Group VP for Shared Services, CEO for Strategic Operations, Group CEO for Technical Operations, and CEO of Saudi Operations provide headship to the company.

The next level of management comprises of VPs in charge of Wholesale, Finance Saudi Arabia, Informational Technology, Home Services, Network, Strategic Affairs, Enterprise Services, Human Capital, Regulatory Affairs, and Personal Services. The third level of managers includes the project managers in all the divisions represented by the vice presidents (Zawya, 2012).

The top-level management consists of four persons proving oversight to all sectors of the company. They provide guidance to the multinational operations on the company. Their functions include setting standards for the company on the three key sectors of the company and making top-level management decisions. They also evaluate the structure of the organization to ensure that is consistent with company orientation.

The second level of management, consisting of the VPs for various subsectors, is responsible for the actual operation decisions in the organization. They cooperatively design strategies for the progress of the company in line with the goals established by the top management and the board of governors.

They have the task of running their subsectors to ensure optimum productivity. The middle level directors consult with project managers to address the issue of motivation, qualifications, and job satisfaction. They interpret the goals of the company in terms of their sectors and communicate them to the first-line managers.

They receive and evaluate reports on the progress of their divisions and make appropriate recommendations. Finally, they report to the top management on the progress in their sub sectors. The product managers have the task of disseminating company policies and goals to non-managerial staff. They translate these policies into actual tasks that the personnel under them will accomplish. They report to their immediate supervisors. They monitor the productivity of the works and make appropriate decisions.

Advantages and disadvantages of their organization structures

Infoscape follows a line-discipline organizational structure. This means that divisions arise from the different roles carried by the middle level managers. Command flows, in most cases, from the top. However, the middle level managers aid in the decision-making by furnishing the CEO with the relevant information. Policies developed from the top management eventually reach the last rank among the employees. This arrangement has several advantages.

It is the simplest method of administration, since the centers of command are easily identifiable and recognizable. Superior-subordinate relationships persist, and the organization follows a top-bottom chain of command, which results in harmony of command. There are fewer chances of miscommunication and conflicts. Since the command flows from only one direction, then all the personnel will be following similar directions, thus, reducing chances of confusion and conflict.

This organizational structure also presents the advantage of instituting better discipline throughout the organization (Murphy & Willmott, 2010).. The lines of authority are clearly identifiable, since authority lies in the hands of several individuals. Therefore, confusions in terms of the leadership guidance do not exist, leading to improved discipline.

This is possible through unified control. Another advantage is fixed responsibility. Each of the line executives bears set authority, power and duties. Duties are properly separable, and there is no confusion or overlapping of roles. This breeds better relationships among managers in the same level, since there are few chances of conflict. Improved relationships may translate to increased productivity.

This organizational structure also results in flexibility. The coordination between top and bottom authority bears an advantage. Since the line executives have clear tasks and responsibilities, they are free to make decisions on things within their dockets. This is especially helpful in the technology industry where new developments occur often, and flexibility is essential.

Apart from enabling the organization to capitalize on the flexibility, it also increases the satisfaction of lower level managers. When they are able to engage in independent decisions, they are more likely to be proud of their work. Additionally, the fact that responsibility is fixed enables the making of apt decisions. During critical times, the absence of the need for elaborate consultations makes decisions making prompt.

However, the model poses a variety of challenges. For example, it provides for the organization over reliance on certain individuals discretion on all issues. Since authority runs from top to bottom, the same line officials are the one s that provides decisions (Murphy & Willmott, 2010). This may pose a danger to the company and may result to redundancy. If the top management is misinformed, the whole organization takes a wrong direction, which may ruin the company.

Another problem presented by the model is the lack of utilization of specialized knowledge. The possible contributions from numerous personnel with expertise in a field do not benefit the company. Inputs by others apart from line managers are not utilized. This may lead to lack of fresh ideas and discontent among employees. The structure also endangers communication. Policies and decisions pass from the top to the bottom, which leaves no channel for communication from the bottom up.

This has serious and detrimental effects to the organization. When the officials take inappropriate decisions, the lack of coordination makes the chances of correcting the decisions minimal. The feedback on the decisions may not reach the top management, denying them the chance to improve them or correct mistakes in the future. This also results in disgruntled employees. Additionally, it is possible for executives to misuse their authority designated to them.

STC utilizes a matrix structure within the organization. The model reflects environmental intricacies in the organization. It values the importance of customer groups, products, geography, and functions. In this structure, operational decisions do not lie with the functional managers, but with the project managers.

This is consistent with a decentralized management style, relegating management decisions to professional unit leaders (Murphy & Willmott, 2010). These units have professional tasks requiring the timely responses in times of environmental demands. It also works well with product market variations, technological variations, elevations in regulative and competitive pressures. This form has numerous rewards.

The structure attains coordination imperative in meeting demand from the customers, environment, and varied regions. Because the model recognizes the importance the preceding aspects in the success of the company, the model allows management to tailor products addressing all the above factors. The model emphasizes the collaboration within the organization. This makes sharing of human resources across varied products possible.

The structure is appropriate for a company in telecommunications where changes are frequent, and the environment is unstable (Murphy & Willmott, 2010).. In such situations, decisions are bound to be complex. It is especially helpful in nurturing the company’s orientation towards a Lead Strategy. The fact that operational decisions lie within professional units, it provides opportunities for those personnel to increase functional skills and develop their careers. This results to happy employees, thus, increasing productivity.

The model also has its limitations. This includes misunderstanding and frustration resulting from duo authority. This arises if the top managers have not precisely separated the duties. The success of this structure depends on effective communication skills between different players within the organization. This requires extensive training for the collaborating personnel.

Additionally, due to the level of collaboration involved, the model necessitates frequent meetings and conflict resolution sessions. This might be time consuming and pricey (Murphy & Willmott, 2010). It requires the first line managers adapting collegial relations instead of vertical relations. These relations may be hard to attain, though its success is dependent on them.

The chains of command, span of control and organizational culture of the organizations

Infoscape Technologies utilizes a considerably centralized management structure. In Infoscape technologies, there are relatively fewer executives compared to the other company. Consequently, the roles of the managers are numerous and concentrated. All the mid-level managers report to the CEO. This includes the director of sales, the project manager, and the HR manager. The middle level managers meet the CEO once a week to deliver reports on the progress at various fronts.

The CEO is largely inaccessible to the other personnel. The first line managers report to the managers in charge of their departments. For example, the technical consultant reports to the project director. If, for example, the technical consultant has issues requiring redress, the only channel accessible to him is through the immediate supervisor, the project manager. Therefore, decision-making power is intense at the top level, with the CEO.

The middle level managers have all the operating authority, while the lower rank managers receive directions and act, mostly, following orders from the manager above them. The middle level managers exercise substantial independence in duties allocated to them. Their roles span wide across numerous issues.

Within the company, there is deep reverence for authority. Authority is unquestionable, but opinions are raised following protocol. There is minimal emphasis on the nature of relationships between staff. The company does not sponsor and provide activities designed to increase cohesion among employees. Of importance, is to report to one’s duty station and complete assigned tasks.

The STC structure is comprised of divisions descriptive of KSA Operations, Strategic Operations, and Technical Operations. Therefore, the Group CEO, Group Vice President for Shared Services, Group CEO for Strategic Operations, Group CEO for Technical Operations, and CEO of Saudi Operations are the company leaders.

The group CEO and the three sector executives provide overall guidance to the company. They control the operations of the entire organization; nevertheless, they only formulate guiding principles and policies, and not actual operational guidelines. They coordinate the activities of the functional managers.

The next level of management comprises of VPs in charge of Wholesale, Finance Saudi Arabia, Informational Technology, Home Services, Network, Strategic Affairs, Enterprise Services, Human Capital, Regulatory Affairs, and Personal Services.

The third level of managers includes the deputies in all the divisions represented by the VPs. These managers report to the four top-level managers. They also get directions from them, but also provide feedback concerning policies. These functional level managers coordinate among themselves satisfying the purposes of the company.

Each of the functional managers has other product managers under him/her. These product managers are the one indirect contact with project staff. They receive their directions for the functional managers, and they also give feedback on the policies and directions handed down to them. The product managers design actual activities and make decisions regarding the projects under their jurisdiction. The organization emphasizes collaboration amid diverse sectors to ensure the championing of company interests.

Therefore, meetings and numerous and common and casual relationships are encouraged, especially, among the functional managers. Communication between managers and the people under them does not follow the manager-subordinate manner. Instead, communication is encouraged to facilitate feedback. Sincerity and integrity is encouraged, especially in reporting. Proper communication means are at the core of the practices within the organization.

Variation in nature and emphasis of the key roles of the top managers in the organizations

The emphasis and nature of managerial roles differ significantly between the two companies. For example, the role of the CEOs in the two companies differs significantly. The CEO of Infoscape provides executive authority for the entire organization.

His decisions are largely unquestionable and are not necessarily dependent on the opinions of the other managers. Both CEOs have the functions of providing guidance to their organization, evaluating standards, supervising and guiding staff, but the way these functions are done differ significantly.

The CEO at Infoscape relies more on his intuition and expertise compared to the CEO of STC. The CEO of STC is firsts surrounded by three sector leaders in charge of the three main sectors of the company. The CEO, therefore, has no direct control on any of the sectors. His duty is to ensure coordination at the senior level. Therefore, he relies more on the information and counsel provided by other managers at the top level than the Infoscape CEO does.

At infoscape, managerial positions emanate from the expertise required by the various operations of the company. Furthermore, the roles of managers are divisible along succinct lines. The managers have the duties of making executive decisions offering directions to those directly below them. Managers are supposed to be in control of all decisions going on in their departments. The emphasis is for managers to be in control of their departments, and achieve the targets and goals set for them by the top management.

Cooperation among managers at the same level is not a serious concern as long as each manager does his/her duty. The roles of managers in the organization are to analyze the progress of their departments, comparing with the set targets, and chart the course while incorporating executive directions. Participation of lower level employees receives insignificant emphasis.

At STC, the next level of senior managers includes the VPs for different divisions. These managers are functional managers. They roles are to assign personnel to various projects rather that making decisions concerning the projects.

They nature of their work revolves around coordinating among themselves. Their main duties are not to make decisions directly affecting projects, but to provide advisory expertise as required. A great deal of their work revolves around holding collaborative meeting. The results of these meetings are communicated in both directions.

They are communicated to the top management and to the project managers. This differs with the roles of managers at Infoscape where managers make decisions concerning their projects and communication is mainly only one way, to the subordinate staff. At Infoscape, there is less coordination among managers, and usually, managers make decisions within their departments with little regard to those of the other managers, as long as they are in line with company policy.

Another difference arises in the role of lower level employees. At STC, these employees receive significant autonomy in their work. They have a greater leeway in making decisions regarding their work. This is different from the Infoscape scenario. At Infoscape, the main role of low-level employees is to follow protocol and obey orders delivered by the managers.

Therefore, significant variances arise in the roles of managers within the two organizations. These variations arise in nature and emphasis of the roles of managers. At SCT managers collaborate more and exercise more oversight roles while, at Infoscape, the role of managers is to make decisions, mostly independently, concerning their projects.

References

Murphy, D. J., & Willmott, H. (2010). Organization theory and design. Hampshire, UK: Cengage Learning.

Zawya. (2012). Company profiles. Retrieved from http://www.zawya.com/cm/profile.cfm/cid1000038/7010.SSE

Fashions, gender roles and social views of the 1950s and 1960s

Fashion

Fashion in the 1950s was a reflection of what the people feared. It also symbolized their aspirations. It was only after the 50s when the young boys and girls began adopting fashions of their own design. In some countries, governments used some clothing as tools to control some ideologies.

This included the USSR. In order to maintain proper attitudes, there was need to maintain conservative clothing. This applied for the workers, students and others. In some places, jeans were outlawed. Women’s fashion, in this decade, symbolized fragile femininity. The men’s clothing, on the other hand, were conservative and clean cut (Rantisi 101).

The 1960s marked the highest level of consciousness in terms of fashion. Fashion was highly valued and this can be seen in the way the clothes worn by the wives of the presidential candidates in America hit the headlines. This period emphasized on shorter coats. In America, the silhouettes had low waists.

There was also the reintroduction of the princesse shape, which was present in the 1950s. However, this was accompanied without indentation on the waistline. The over-blouse was also fashionable during this period. Other parts of the world emphasized on the designing of sharp-pointed hats and wide collars. In Europe, the skirts of this period were shorter than usual.

Gender roles

In the 1950s, the role of housekeeping and raising the family was meant to be for the women. However, it was less rigid than before. The man was the sole breadwinner in the family and he went out to work. His main role was to provide for the family. The woman, on the other hand, stayed at home and performed the house duties.

These activities included cooking and caring for the children. The woman was not expected to work even though she was learned. However, the women had started to take up some jobs in the factories in order to increase workforce.

In the 1960s, the man was still the breadwinner at home. The man was still expected to go to work in order to provide for the family back at home. The woman also continued performing duties similar to those of women in the 1950s. They stayed at home, cared for the children and performed the house duties.

However, this period marked a time for change for the women (Moen, Erickson, and Dempster-McClain 288). This is when the roles of women in the American society changed dramatically. This is when the largest number of women joined the workforce where they received pay. As the women increased in numbers at the workplace, they exerted more pressure on the management in order to address the forms of discrimination in terms of pay and promotions.

Social views

Social views include divorce issues. During the 1950s, divorce was not a common thing. This was due to the pressure from the society. The society expected those who were married to remain married. Another issue in the 1950s was in employment. Women could not get decent jobs during that period. This posed a great challenge to mothers who had to take care of their children (Halttunen and Belgrad 63).

The 1960s saw the increase in the cases of divorce. It changed from being a rare phenomenon to become a routine. This issue deteriorated and the numbers were ever increasing. No one anticipated the current situation concerning the issue of divorce. Employment of women increased in the 1960s and this saw the role of women change. They were also expected to provide for the family.

Works Cited

Halttunen, Karen, and Daniel Belgrad. American Social & Cultural History. New York: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2008. Print.

Moen, Phyllis, MaryAnn Erickson, and Donna Dempster-McClain. “Their mother’s daughters: The intergenerational transmission of gender attitudes in a world of changing roles.” Journal of Marriage and Family 59.2 (1997): 281-293. Print.

Rantisi, Norma. “The ascendance of New York fashion.” General & Introductory Urban Studies 28.1 (2004): 86-106. Print.