Robocalls in Canada Elections

Elections Canada warned the public not to trust any calls that claimed change of polling stations. The announcement was made on2nd May, 2011 by the election agency which went further to inform the public that the automated calls were not made by the agency.

The robocalls which mainly targeted the Liberal and NDP supporters gave misleading information to the public. The pranks and harassing calls asked voters to vote in other polling stations, claiming they were being made on behalf of a candidate.

Among the first people to report the prank calls to Elections Canada was Frank Valeriote, a Liberal candidate in Guelph, Ontario. The robocalls were common in Guelph and Thunder Bay where the people received automated calls or live calls with misleading and mischievous information.

Election Canada has evidence that the calls were from a number in Quebec which is no longer in use. The number is registered under a restaurant name in Guelph-Pierre Poutine. Further investigations indicate that the number was initially used to contact Racknine Inc.

Robocalls are legitimate methods of running campaigns in several countries including the USA. The robocalls are automated calls that help a candidate campaign by giving messages about the campaign and information that is relevant to the voter. However, if the service is used to give false and misleading information then it is declared illegal.

The conservatives agree that prank calls were made in Guelph, but the party did not have any role to play in the matter. On the other hand, the Liberal party and NDP believe that the ruling party may have used the robocalls to disrupt and mislead voters.

Even though, there is evidence that misleading and harassing calls were made to the public, there isn’t a clear indication of the effects. The strategies and tricks did not have a lot of influence on the 2011 election results because voter turnout was higher than the 2008 elections.

The ruling party i.e. the conservatives are not treating the issue as a matter of national interest instead they termed it as a lot of noise from the opposition. The conservatives choose to blame the opposition and Elections Canada. However, the ruling party should have involved itself actively to find the source and solution of the problem. In so doing, they would have convinced the public that they are interested in solving the issue. Before the issue is solved the conservatives do not have full consent of Canadian voters.

The Liberal and NDP may be blowing the matter out of context. Though there may be some truth in the issue, the rate at which people are reporting fraudulent calls may weaken the issue. Some people view the increase of reports as mischievous and exaggerated.

Elections Canada the agency with the responsibility of solving the issue is not reporting the process and how far the investigation has gone. The complaints submitted to the agency have not been investigated. No one is sure if Elections Canada has the capability and resources to resolve this issue. When Elections Canada offers the results of the investigation then the public will be satisfied with the elections results of 2011.

Racknine Inc. has offered to cooperate with Elections Canada in investigating the issue. This is because some parties had tried to disrupt elections using their service. With witnesses from Responsive Marketing Group inc. Elections Canada should collect all the necessary information from these groups to find the main culprits, and the reasons for their actions. Elections Canada and RCMP should work together to reach the bottom of this issue.

The conservatives cannot fully govern with the Canadians’ sanction if this issue is not resolved. It’s clear that the elections of 2011 were affected by misleading calls, and the matter has to be investigated. Therefore, without faith in elections there is no democracy.

August Wilson’s Fences


August Wilson’s Fences displays the struggle of African Americans to attain their ambitions. Wilson explained clearly how men in African-American struggled to be victorious in achieving their dreams. Literary scripts can contribute greatly as historical articles which express social actualities that are creatively displayed by the Wilson.

Hence, literature may not be disconnected from society and the analysis of literature must be associated to society. August Wilson is well-known in American literature as a writer of plays of African-American who usually narrate about African incidences in the past societies in U.S. The attempts of African Americans to attain their ambitions, as well as its challenging social matters like discriminations are portrayed in his play called Fences.

This play narrates about a black family in 1950s who attempted to live among the people in the American urban regions (Bogumi 34). The author himself stayed in African American slum society during his early age, which he went on to portray in several dramatic writings.

The play, Fences, gives an appealing case of the way both metaphysical and physical expressions of particular African retentions joint to enhance existing African American culture. The Africa which the author revives in Fences portrays itself through different levels and in both explicit and implicit ways. Normally, such ways may not be comprehended if American sense exists as the only standard. These African links come out in unspoken policies which shape everyday rituals of such characters and instill the play on several stages.

Through analyzing Fences within African American cosmology, instead of depending only upon Western models of examination, the play produces a greater important interpretation of how black Americans settle the issues of their “double consciousness” in the America (Steffens 5). That African cosmology turns into an important section of the play’s sub textual tale, a tale which opposes America’s disruptive discrimination with Africa’s ability to cure, reunite, and empower.

All through the play, the search of dreams has contributed greatly in the characters’ self-achievement. Nevertheless, Fences mainly focused on the men characters and their goals; the author did not talk much about the characters of women. As Wilson portrays the characters of men in detail, the dreams of female characters stay undeclared.

Furthermore, just one female, called Rose Maxson, who represented his women characters, while the rest of women protagonists only existed after they are cited by other women characters participating in the play. It appears that the author merely provides opportunity to Rose to express her mind as a member of the African American women. Hence, Rose is a main character which may be employed as the channel to understand about the way women observe the benefit of possessing and attaining their dreams.

From the start of the play, Rose is expressed as the character under the patriarchal control and association with her spouse is exemplified through her spouse’s sexist viewpoints. Just like the rest of Black women, when she went into marriage, she had to sacrifice her freedom and she is possessed and completely authorized by her husband.

While she attempts to safeguard her family, Troy is betraying through having relationship with different women as his manner to attain free will. This issue surprised Rose: “You should have stayed in my bed, Troy… You should have held me tight. You should have grabbed me and hold on.” (Wilson 1333). She is curious about Troy’s faithfulness as her spouse and his compliance to maintain their marriage in a positive path.

The goods moods and close relations among a mother and children as well may be observed in the family of the author. Wilson and his brothers and sisters took their mother as their role model, whereas their father was mainly not there during their early age. Their mother was the person who showed them the benefit of possessing stable sense of satisfaction and zero tolerance for impartiality.

As the author wrote about African-American, he did not prevent the control of culture in the place he grew up, including his previous incidences of discrimination, and he made his play derived on those factors which he experienced from his life. Additionally, he expressed that Fences provides a distinct viewpoint on the way persons observe the African-Americans, which can have an impact on the way they think and contact each other.

In Fences, Wilson attempted to describe the experiences of women in the past societies through introducing or using Rose, he employed her character as his device to portray how difficult the life of Black American is. Her disappointment in attaining her dream to have a successful marriage and her intention to dedicate her life greatly on her parenthood’s side, looks like the life of some African American mothers.

His mother, who was unsuccessful in trying to have the best family during her initial marriage, along with her achievement in improving her children’s status, are his devices to direct his reader to understand effectively about the past of African American females.

From the analysis of Fences, it can be deduced that the author is conscious of the status of African-American who are near him and he made his play derived from such facts (Bogumi 34), therefore Wilson employed the characters like Rose to pass a point to the African American women to consider their ambitions and even, to add more efforts to attain their goals, even though their goals are still nearly linked to the concepts satisfying their responsibilities as the core provider of the family.

He did well in displaying is perspective on the way African American women must observe the benefit of having their own goals and what they must perform to attain such goals.

Certainly, African American women in the past had fewer opportunities upon getting into adulthood. Rarely did such options go past their marriage, parenthood, and family life.

Finances used during their schooling was seen as an ill-advised investment, particularly since less job opportunities were not there for them which needed more than a capacity of providing for the needs of the white Americans. Furthermore, the status of anti-intellectualism against female proposed that schooling “stained” women and create them not to be better wives.


In conclusion, the existence of the African-Americans is mainly evaluated by men values and standards. From the above analysis, female are placed in the inequality position by men and the patriarchal structure, and this status creates them, rarely, have an opportunity to consider their own dreams so attain them. Wilson is successful in displaying is perspective on what issues experienced by women who are attempting to attain their dreams as a kind of equality and acceptance in the community.

August Wilson’s Fences not only motivates debate, but it as well motivates thoughts concerning human status. The play brings about the degree of understanding that exceeds certain experiences of the Maxson family and continues to portray a simple wisdom for both the individual and for that particular person as a connection in a family system (Steffens 5). The idea of this play is to bring to the front within complete observation of the racial and economic difficulties which African Americans faced during past America society.

Works Cited

Bogumi, Maryl. Understanding August Wilson. Columbia, SC: Univ of South Carolina Press, 1999. Print.

Steffens, Johannes. Recognizing ‘Fences’ – Troy Maxson’s Identity Politics. New York: GRIN Verlag, 2007. print.

Wilson, August. Fences Drama: A Pocket Anthology. 3rd Ed. New York: Penguin Academics, 2006. Print.

Different quality services between Asia and Europe Hotels


There has been an endless debate among travelers concerning the standard of quality of service in the hospitality industry. It is worth noting that the debate is focusing on whether European hotels offer same level of services as their Asian counterparts.

There is no doubt that different people have different test when it comes to the quality of service they would like to receive from hotels as well as other hospitality industry. There are those of the view that whenever they are out of their country, they expect to receive services equal to what is offered back home while there are those who believe they need to receive a different level of service (Naraya et al., 2009).

Since the world has turned into a global village, travelling has been faster and cheaper, thus people find themselves out of their motherland more often. This kind of travelling has offered hospitality industry with an opportunity to grow. One area that scholars have noted to be of interest and can be successfully used as competitive advantage is to provide customers with very high standard of service; this can be attained through incorporating cultural aspects.

As a result of rising significance of service quality in the hotel industry, scholars in the hospitality industry dedicated their efforts to come up with a framework as well as measurable scales to help determine perception of service quality. As a result SERVQUAL model was developing and up to date it is well known and has been applied in various studies. The model is made up of 5 service quality dimensions and includes the following; tangible, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and reliability (Tse, 2009).

Tangibles are those physical facilities; equipment as well as how the employees of a hotel look, when the expectations of a customer are met this will contribute to satisfaction.

Reliability means the ability to accomplish and provide customers with services initially promised, responsiveness defines the willingness of hotel workers to help customers and give them prompt services, assurance refers to knowledge and courtesy of workers towards visitors finally empathy is the caring and personalized attention that customers are provided with by service providers.

Ideally service quality has been simply thought of as the difference between perceptions of customers and his or her expectations. Therefore service quality is one way to help manage business process in order to ensure that total satisfaction to customers on all levels is attained. Ideally the concept ultimately results in higher level of competitiveness, effectiveness as well as flexibility.

According to Robinson, 2003, he asserts that every nation has realized the importance of tourism and has embarked on efforts to attract more tourists. To match the demands and aspiration of the visitors, hotels are in the forefront to ensure that the visitors are satisfied with everything which will ensure customer loyalty as well as retention.

Asian hotels

Asian hotels has the advantage of being considerably less expensive compared to those in America and Europe zone. For this reason, every individual can afford to enjoy the services of the hotel industry.

However in Europe, individual of lower income level can only share room with many other visitors. Similarly, hotels in Asia tend to give much better services as compared to their European counterparts. Additionally the facilities are better too (Tse, 2009).

For instance room are relatively larger in size, they are new bathroom are also newer and larger. Visitors have indicated that they love to spend their holidays in Asian hotels since it is affordable. They claim that they can stay in a hotel in a beach or a block away from the beach at relatively lower cost. Taking dinner every single night is fun and affordable too. Interestingly visitors indicate that they are more attracted to the unique culture of the region.

Europe hotels

Hotels in Europe are quite expensive as compared to those in Asian countries. From previous studies, it has been revealed that most of the hotels in this region are smaller; however visitors find it to be charming as well as offer local hospitality. Nonetheless, there have been cases where visitors were of the view that the rooms and bathroom were quite smaller, with poor ventilation. Other visitors were unsatisfied with the quality of linen offered to them as well as lack of view from their room (Akbaba, 2006).

Factor impacting on customer satisfaction (culture)

It has been shown that service quality or customer satisfaction with regards to services in the hospitality industry is dictated by a number of factors. The encountered services, employee training and culture are the three most important factors that lead to quality service.

As suggested by Yi, Marcelo & Tyler, 2008 more emphasis has been put on culture and quality service particularly when comparing European and Asian hotels. This is because culture significantly plays an important role in dictating how customers expect services to be delivered.

Similarly cultural differences play an important role in understanding differences between customers and more often than not act as a factor in affecting the preferences as well as values of the customer in deciding to use a service. For that matter service managers need to be fully aware of not only their ability to leverage culture-driven expectations but also the cost associated with ignoring cultural norms and beliefs.

Previous studies have shown that when dealing with Japanese service should be tailored to ensure safety and the service provider should give more attention to them. Additionally customers with western culture have been shown to be more likely to depend on the tangible cues from the physical environment as compared to their Asian counterpart.

Similarly hedonic dimension of the consumption experience is more important to those having western culture as compared to those of Asian culture. Other studies particularly the one carried out by Hsu & Kang, 2003 and Tsang & Qu, 2007 clearly indicates that Asian visitors exhibit higher level of expectations and tend to evaluate perceived service quality more unfavorably than the non Asian visitors.

This has been shown to be directly linked to money that they spend on a service. It is from this cultural background that most of the Asian hotels seem to emphasis on providing their customers with more attention, guarantee security and put less emphasis on tangible aspect. However due to globalization, Asian hotels have managed to bring in the concept of tangible more central to their operation in order to appeal to western visitors.

This kind of combination has been shown to auger well with better quality service. Similarly the findings of Donthu & Yoo, 1998 revealed that individualistic customers tend to exhibit higher levels of expectations of assurance from hotels as compared to collectivist since they expect to receive confidence about the service they have paid for from service providers.

Another study done by Mittila, 1999 which centered on perception of service quality between western and Asian customers concerning communication and power distance, it was apparent that culture resulted in bias on how individuals evaluated their goals to purchasing a service.

According to Furrer et al., 2000, perception of service quality indeed varies with the culture of the customers. Thus individualists prefer to keep distance between them and those providing the service and to that effect tangible attributes of service industry comes in handy. There is no doubt that there is a close relationship between culture and service quality.

Interestingly, people in Asia strongly believe in harmony and are of the view that open expression of dissatisfaction is inappropriate as well as not socially acceptable. The reason is that this might lead to confrontations which will ultimately jeopardize the relationship between customers and service providers. For this reason, Asian hotels have mastered ways of understanding their customers need and expectations hence providing them with services that satisfy them.

However, in situations where visitors from Europe visit Asian hotels, when they express their concerns about certain issues, workers seem to be offended with such open expression of dissatisfaction. As noted previously visitors have mixed demands, there are those who will call for services which are in line with their culture while others will demand services that are unique. It has been shown that visitors from Asian countries when they go outside the region demand for services which uphold their culture (Tanvir, 2011).

On the other hand, western visitors more often than note demand for high value indigenous culture based services. In Asian hotel, culture dictates a lot and this might make western visitors feel unsatisfied. For instance, it is not allowed to openly take liquor forcing them to be restricted in their room; to them this denies them the chance to enjoy the scenic beauty.

Additionally hand shake to women is not allowed, this seems weird to western visitors since they are used to hugging and even kissing females in public. All these cultural attributes in one way or the other contributes to differences in perceive quality service in Europe and Asian hotels (Winsted, 1997).

Research questions and objectives

The main research question is to establish the effect of cultural differences on perceived service quality between Europe and Asian hotels. This is guided by the fact that previous studies have indeed worked in trying to establish the relationship or significance of culture of service quality, however there has been no effort directed in determining the effect of culture on perceived service quality.

The specify objective of the study will include;

Establishing the cultural differences between western and Asian visitors.
To find out the extent to which these cultural differences impact on how an individual perceive quality service.
To develop recommendations that will help hotels in Asia and Europe reduce the quality service difference gap.

It is no doubt that due to the nature of globalization, there is need for service providers to be fully aware of how cultural difference impacts on how individuals perceive quality service. If hotel managers fail to accommodate the demands and aspirations of their customers who come from every corner of the world, then there are higher chances that they may run out of business (Cheng-Shiung, Chin-Tsai & Sheng-Hshiung, 2005)


Akbaba, A. (2006). Measuring service quality in the hotel industry: A study in a business hotel in Turkey. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25(2): 170-192.

Cheng-Shiung, W., Chin-Tsai, L & Sheng-Hshiung, T. (2005) Cultural differences of service quality and behaviour intention in tourist’s hotels. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 13(1): 41- 60.

Donthu, N. & Yoo, B. (1998). Cultural influences on service quality expectations. Journal of Service Research, 1(2): 178-186.

Furrer, O. et al., (2000). The relationship between culture and service quality perception: basis for cross-cultural market segmentation and resource allocation. Journal of Hospitality Research, 2(4): 355-37.

Hsu, C & Kang, S. (2003). Profiling Asian and western family independent travelers: an exploratory study. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 8(1): 58-71.

Mattila, A. (1999). The role of culture in the service evaluation process. Journal of Service Research, 1(3): 250-261.

Naraya, B. et al., (2009). Dimensions of service quality in tourism: An Indian perspective. Total Quality Management, 20(1): 61-89.

Robinson, K. (2003). Tourism: it’s about managing competitiveness, too. International Trade Forum, 2(1): 2-5.

Tanvir, S. 2011. A remedy based concept: Impact of encounter service, culture and employee training on customer’s satisfaction of hospitality industry. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research Business, 3(2): 1237-1247.

Tsang, N. & Qu, H. (2007). Service quality in China’s hotel industry: a perspective from tourism and hotel managers. International journal of contemporary Hospitality Management, 12(5): 316-326.

Tse, E. (2009). Service Quality in the Hotel Industry: When Cultural Contexts Matter. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 50 no. 4 460-474.

Winsted, K. (1997). The service experience in two cultures: A behavioral perspective. Journal of Retailing, 73(1): 337-60.

Yi, W., Marcelo, R. & Tyler, K. (2008). Cultural perspectives: Chinese perceptions of UK hotel service quality. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 2(4):.312 – 329.

Analysis of the French Wine Sector


The wine industry is one of the oldest industries in the world with a number of countries being that major players in the industry. One of the countries in which the wine industry has existed for a very long time is France. For a long time, France has been known to be one of the renowned nations in the production and consumption of wine.

This means that there are very many firms that produce wine in France. France has a large population that consumes wine thus this population acts as the first market for the wine sector or industry in the country. The government of France has been supporting the Wine sector for a long time due to the expansiveness, and thus influence of the industry to the economy of France. The government support has backed the sector from both internal and external economic pressure and threats (Jenster, 2008).

Over many years, the wine industry in France has been influenced the interests in English and the Dutch market. This happened before the French revolution. The ancient regions in France which have been known to produce wine include Alsace, Bordeaux, Burgundy, Loire Valley, Champagne, Languedoc and Rhone. France dominated the wine industry globally till near the end of the 20th century. However, the 21st century has brought about significant changes in the wine industry.

The global wine market has become significantly competitive. Other regions of Europe and the world have come in the industry and are giving France a cut throat competition. In Europe, Spain and Italy have joined wine producing countries in the world. Also, there are other recent wine produces like Australia, California – United States and a number of countries in the South American region (Wherry, 2011).

The wine sector in France started booming in the 19th century after the end of French revolution. The French Revolution brought about the rise in incidences of production of poor quality wine in France. This was because there was inadequate knowledge among the producers of wine in the country.

The technology that was being utilized in the processing of wine was poor. Therefore, investment was made in order to come up with improved technologies in wine production. Therefore, a wine processing technology known as “chaptalization” which entails the addition of sugar into wine to raise alcohol levels was developed. This was a turning point in the wine sector in France as this technology was further built on to better the industry.

By around 1850s, the wine industry had sky had attained voluminous growth. During the same time, the upper class commonly referred to as the bourgeoisie had emerged. This class formed part of the largest group of wine consumers. The bourgeoisie provided a big market for the wine sector. Many technological developments took place in the wine sector to better quality of wine. Towards the end of the 19th century, the government of France gave Louis Pasteur the task of studying the problems that were facing the wine industry.

Pasteur carried out research and established findings that revolutionized the science of winemaking in France. In his study, he discovered what caused wine spoilage and developed processes of eliminating wine spoilage. Also, the development of the French railway systems added to the betterment of the wine sector as it opened up more area for trading of the French wines. More regions became accessible (Anderson, 2004).

Wine is produced in different regions of France. France as a country produces approximately 60 million hectoliters of wine annually. The country has the second widest total vineyard area globally. The leading county in terms of the size of vineyard area in the world is Spain. France still leads the production of wine in the world.

It was only eliminated from the top spot in the year 2008 by Italy. The country produces a wide variety of wines. Expensive and high vined wines are produced and exported to other countries where they are consumed. Modest wines are also produced though they are mostly sold in the local market (Anderson, 2004).

France has different varieties of grape, and this is one of the factors that give this country a competitive advantage in the wine sector. These different varieties of grape include chardonnay, pinot noir, cabernet sauvignon, syrah, and sauvignon blanc. However, these varieties have been introduced and are now being cultivated in other countries.

The wine making practices that were only utilized in France have also been imported by other countries. This has been coupled with other pressures like the drop in the local consumption and the growth of wine industries in other countries within and outside Europe. This has put pressure on the wine sector and reduced the competitive advantage of this sector in the world market. The per capita wine consumption dropped by almost 20 percent in the 1900 decade.

This means that reliance on foreign markets remains to be the focus of wine producers in the country. France has been depending on the regional market for the sale of its wine. Therefore, the production of wine in other states within and without the European Union threatens the wine sector. Expensive wines have been fetching a lot of in some for the sector as most of the expensive wines find markets in the wealthy markets of Europe and the United States (Dougherty, 2011).

The wine sector is an important booster of the agricultural sector of France. Agriculture forms part of the important sectors in the economy of France. The main crops that are grown are sugar beets, barley, wheat, corn and potatoes and fruits. The fruits are utilized in the making of wine.

Therefore, the wine industry holds a big part of the local economy through the support of the horticultural sector. The wine sector provides employment to a relatively big number of people. Apart from this, the wine industry is a foreign exchange earner for the country by way of the payments that are made from the sale of wine in the international market. The wine sector boosts other industries in the country; therefore, its importance in the French economy is too open (Dougherty, 2011).

The wine sector in France has been coping well in the global wine industry. However, the competitive developments in the 21st century have affected innovation and the wine export opportunities for the country. However, the country is still ranked as the leading producer and in consumption of wine.

It is important to note that the gap at which it is leading is shrinking at an increasing rate. By the year 2007, France only had a 20 percent of the total world production while its consumption stood at 14 percent. More competition is likely to shrink its market more and force the country out of the international wine market. The wine exports are reducing while the local sales are also going down (Jordan, Zidda & Lockshin, 2007).

Strategy Exploration – Exporting, Differentiation and New Technology

Owing to the recent developments in the wine sector of France, a number of strategies have been adopted to streamline the sector. These strategies are differentiation, exporting and new technology. All the strategies aim at improving the competitiveness of a sector in the economy.

Differentiation, commonly known as product differentiation in economics and business studies can be defined as the approach that a firm in the industry adopts in order to develop and increase marketing of its unique goods for different segments of customers. This strategy works well where a firm has an upper hand when it comes to competitive advantage and the ability to sustain costly advertising campaigns.

Essentially, this is regarded as one of the marketing strategies. This strategy is also called market segmentation. Product differentiation simply means separating the products of a firm from those of competitor firms. The major objective of product differentiation in an industry is to boost the competitive advantage of the product in the market.

In other words, product differentiation increases the competitive advantage of products if it is properly applied by a firm in the industry or economy. In economics, well conducted product differentiation results in monopolistic competition. It eliminates perfect competition. There are there different types of product differentiation, which are simple, horizontal and vertical differentiation (Zanni, 2004).

The exporting strategy involves the assessment of the products as it appertains to their potentiality for export. Exporting strategies aims at helping a firm to enter and gain grounds in the international market. Exports expand the market for products and the competitive base of a firm.

New technologies are applied in either the business processing or production stages of products of a firm. When applied in the production process, new technologies do aim at raising the quality and the value of products in the market. When the product quality is improved by way of applying new technology, the products become more competitive in the market (Jordan, Zidda & Lockshin, 2007).

The various strategies may be used differently at a time; however, in certain instances, firms may decide to use various strategies concurrently. However, this depends with the intensity of the problem that is being solved by these strategies or the objectives of the firm that is applying the strategies.

More often, one strategy is applied. Nevertheless, the success of the strategy determines the employment of the proceeding strategy. The wine sector of France has applied all these strategies at different times. These strategies have been applied to increase the competitiveness of the sectors as a result of internal and external constraints that have been affecting the operation of the sector in the country.

New technology has for instance been applied from the earliest time of the industry with a lot of changes being made to enhance wine quality. Product differentiation has also been adopted by the wine industry and applied in different ways. The wine has been branded differently to make it distinctive from other wine products from Italy, Spain and other wine producers in the United States and the South American region.

Other aspects of product differentiation like packaging have also been employed by the French wine industry. With the shrinkage of the local market, the wine sector of France has been forced to develop export marketing strategy which will see it increase foreign sales that will be useful in offsetting the effect of the shrunken local market (Moulton & Lapsley, 2001).

Strategy Analysis: French Wine Sector

(Impact on )Strategy


Strategy II


Strategy III

New Technology

CustomersThere are different types or brands of wine produced in France. France Produces high quality wine which is suits the customers in the foreign market. The quality of wine that is mostly consumed at the local market is of medium quality. Also, there will be price differences that come with each developed wine brands. Therefore, they are attracting customers of different income bases.The different brands in which the wine is offered gives an opportunity to customers in the foreign market to enjoy the variation and differences min tastes of wine. There is a likelihood of increase in the number of customers in the foreign market.Innovation in the wine industry, through the introduction of new technologies, has resulted to the development of new tastes and variations in wine products. Therefore, the number of customers has also risen. Technology has a positive impact especially so when it turns out positive on products.
EmployeesWhen the export strategy succeeds, the employees will get an assurance of being sustained in the industry. With increased exports, there will be increments in income for the company. Therefore, the workers will get an increment in wages which will better their economic conditions and motivate them.Differentiation has a direct effect on employees. When the industry diversifies its production and distribution process, this results in an increased number of employees. There will be structural changes that come with differentiation which will have a short-term effect on the employees as the program picks up. However, the employees will get benefits as the program picks up.The new technology is leading to the production of different brands of wine. New brands of wines mean that the market will expand the meaning that more jobs will be created, and the current employees will be remunerated.
CommunityThere will be different types of wines available for the community. Increase in wine exports has encouraged wine tourism, which will better the community.Wine sector differentiation offers the community with employment activities as differentiation creates more diversification and thus more job opportunities.Community development results from improved technologies and improved productivity. Innovation will lead to the growth of the wine sector. This will benefit the community directly through offering employment opportunities. Also, it will have indirect benefits through corporate social responsibility activities of the firms in the sector.
GovernmentIncreasing exports are helping the government of France to advance international business relations with other countries through bilateral and multilateral trade agreements. It opens up the country to increased trading activities.Differentiation has been the source of business diversification that has led to the development of tourism and hotel industry. This is because most French wine accompanies meals. The government uses wine as the major tourism feature.Support of research and development in order to innovate results in industrial growth meaning that the government will directly gain from industrial growth. More jobs will be created for the citizens and the government will garner more taxes from the industry.
AlliancesFrance is cooperating with other wine companies in other countries. This will help the country to gain new techniques of production and improve its access into the foreign market. This also improves its reputation in the international market.Alliances are part of the facets f the differentiation strategy.A business alliance, which is part of business partnership, helps in the development of technology and production invention and innovation. His s helping in the bettering of products in the industry.
CompetitorsNew competitors have come into the wine industry. These competitors are Italy, Spain and other countries in South America for instance Chile. In order to overcome the competition, France has chosen to adopt differentiation strategies that help to maintain their products in the international wine market and maintain a good share of the wine market in the international market.The competition that has developed in the global wine market has necessitated the rebranding of products to and increased promotion of the French wines both at the local and in the international market. Wine firms in France are adopting all measures that will see them maintain the status and sales of their products in the now competitive wine market.As part of the efforts of fighting competition, new brands are developed through research and development thereby helping to raise the competitive levels of the French wine industry.
InvestorsThe whole process of the wine sector improvement gives an opportunity to investors in the agricultural sector of France. This sector produces raw materials that are used in the making of wine. The export of wine products into the international market results in other business deals giving a chance to both foreign and local investors. Investors in the industry directly benefits from the export of wine.This opens a window for investors in the wine and related sectors.More income is generated as a result of new technologies, more income to the investors thus more investments.

Green Pastures: The Launch of StaGreen

Executive summary

Hydrocan is a small start-up company that came up with a new lawn product known as StaGreen. Since the company had no professional marketer or marketing department, it needed advice on how to market its product. Hydrocan needed advice how it could identify its target group. Moreover, Hydrocan needed advice on the type of strategy it could use while launching its new product.

The company wanted to know how to position StanGreen in the new market. Therefore, the management of Hydrocan approached Stone Age Marketing Consultants for advice on how to market StaGreen. Therefore, this article analyses the methods that Stone Age used to enable Hydrocan to launch StaGreen successfully. Moreover, it provides recommendation on further marketing strategies that can be used to enhance the marketing process of the StaGreen.

Background & Statement of the Problems

Hydrocan was seeking to launch StaGreen into the market. Therefore, the company approached Stone Age marketing Consultants for advice. Stone Age marketing Consultants did an analysis on the costs, prices, and mode of communication in order to formulate a comprehensive market launch strategy for StaGreen. In order to achieve their objectives, Stone Age marketing Consultants met with Hydrocan.

They outlined StaGreen’s characteristics that distinguished it from other products in the market. Moreover, Hydrocan Company had to identify the target market for StaGreen. Hydrocan hoped to capture customers either in the commercial market or in the consumer market. The marketing consultants saw the need to use different marketing strategies due to the difference in markets. Therefore, they performed a research in order to investigate the viability of either a consumer or commercial launch.

Data obtained from the consumer market showed that the consumers spent $945 million on gardening products. From this value, consumers spend 620 million dollars on lawn maintenance of which 52% was spent on fertilizers. If Hydrocan wanted to enter this market, it would be competing with firms that manufactured fertilizers (Hale, 1996).

The consumer fertilizer market was highly competitive. The top two firms in the industry were Scotts Co. and Ortho Chemicals. These two firms had a market share of approximately 50%. Scotts Co. had the largest market share with two powerful brands. However, research showed that 40% of the consumers had no brand preference (Hale, 1996). Therefore, they relied on store advertisements and staff for advice. Most of the consumers could not recall the manufacturers and brand names.

Retailers sold lawn products in the consumer market. Discount stores sold 60% of the fertilizers while 30% of the sales occurred in specialty stores. Home improvement stores sold 10% of the total fertilizer sales (Hale, 1996). On the other hand, manufacturers of fertilizers utilized 20% of the sales on marketing. Most manufacturers were aware that the consumer market needed exemplary selling skills (Hale, 1996).

Research on the commercial market yielded results showing that the market consisted of 1800 golf courses and some commercial properties. However, the most viable markets are the golf courses. 24% of the total costs spent on maintaining golf courses was spent on fertilizers purchase.

Golf courses bought their supplies from small firms that specialize in products designed exclusively for grasses (Hale, 1996). It was extremely hard to convince the golf courses to abandon their preferred brand of fertilizers. However, golf course owners were concerned about pollution caused by fertilizers. Therefore, they were contemplating the use of an alternative product.

Hydrocan could produce 180,000 kg of Stagreen on monthly basis. They proposed a pricing strategy that reflected the quality of StaGreen. In a case where the company decided to target the consumer market, they would package Stagreen in bags of 10 kg (Hale, 1996). The price of StaGreen would be $22.50 with the variable costs accounting for 52% of the sales.

From the sales of StaGreen, discounting stores could take up to 25% mark-up while specialty stores would scrape up to 35% mark-up. In case the company used wholesalers, they would take up to 15% mark-up. The company has fixed costs of 700000 owing to renting equipment and site. Other costs include $ 80,200 to cover administrative costs, $ 20,650 to cover research and development and $ 12,350 accounted for miscellaneous costs. Partners were willing to forgo their salaries.

The marketing department was allocated a budget of $555,000. Hydrocan divided this amount among various tasks including seasonal discounts, in-store displays, newspaper advertisement and sweepstakes. Hydrocan plans to use discounts to bait the retailers. Moreover, Hydrocan use discounts in order to reduce the storage costs.

The in-store displays would cost the company $250 per display. The purpose of the sweepstake was to increase customers’ awareness on the existence of Stagreen. The company planned to hire 20 workers in the sales department (Hale, 1996). Hydrocan paid a salary of $25,000 to each worker. The duties of the workers would be to sell the product through the different channels. Moreover, the workers offered training through seminars.

In case the company decided to target the commercial market, the company had to increase the size of StaGreen’s bag to 50 kg. The selling price per bag would be $150. The company would sell directly to the commercial users or to the wholesalers.

The variable costs would drop to 40% of the total sales due to the high prices charged in the commercial option. The contribution margin would form 60% the total sales. The fixed costs were to remain relatively the same. On the other hand, the marketing and distribution cost would change because costs related to seasonal discounts, advertising, and sweepstakes would not be applicable (Hale, 1996).

However, the company would increase the number of sales representatives to 30 in order to handle the demands of the commercial markets. In addition to this strategy, the company had set aside $100000 for offering free samples. The distribution costs in the market would fall if Hydrocan chose the commercial market. This is because the demand is independent of seasons in the commercial market.

Problem Statement

Both markets present strong cases. They both have merits and demerits. However, the company faces a decision to start trading as soon as possible. Moreover, they lack sufficient capital to invest in both the commercial and consumer markets unless they showed that they could earn profits. Hydrocan cannot increase their capacity unless they have been operational for at least two years. Therefore, Hydrocan has to choose between the two markets basing their decision on the information provided by Stone Age marketing consultants.

Situation Analysis

Hydrocan executives are faced with a decision between two competing alternatives. Each of the alternatives has its advantages and disadvantages. Taking the consumer market for instance, they have an advantage of large market. The consumer fertilizer market accounts for 52% of the total sales in lawn maintenance products.

Therefore, the consumer sales are approximately $322.4 million. Hydrocan has a good chance of claiming a portion of this market. Another merit that observed in the consumer market is the lack of firmly established brands. The article clearly states that 40 % of the consumers have no brand preference (Hale, 1996).

Moreover, most of the customers do not remember brand names. In fact, the only established brands in the market are Turf builder and Miracle Gro manufactured by Scotts Co. Both of these products are advertised as maximum growth products and are not necessarily aimed at offering lawn care.

Therefore, if Hydrocan invests in this market and establish a brand they can claim a good portion of the market. Moreover, if they ensure that the consumers remember the name of StaGreen brand, Hydrocan may be successful. The fact that consumers do not remember the brand names makes them gullible and easy to capture. With this in mind, the strategy of using a sweepstake to increase awareness is a viable marketing idea.

This is because the strategy increases the awareness and captures the attention of the consumers thus making them to remember the brand name. The consumer market also has several distribution channels that enable the companies to reach their customers. This is an advantage to Hydrocan Company since it is entering a new market. Therefore, Hydrocan is not required establish new distribution channels for their products.

Hydrocan may also use these distribution channels to ensure that they reduce their storage costs. In addition to all these factors, the major market-share holders are both based in the United States. In this case, Hydrocan has an advantage of establishing itself as a Canadian based brand. Establishment of a local brand will enable Hydrocan to compete with the two major market-share holders. Hydrocan offers a unique product.

However, the consumer market also has its demerits. One of the demerits is the fact that the market is highly seasonal. 70% of the total sales take place between the months of April and September. Therefore, this becomes a demerit because, during the other months, the companies will be paying the fixed costs while the business levels are extremely low.

The fixed cost may include storage costs rent paid on factory premises, and fixed overheads such as security costs. Moreover, the prospect of using marketing to increase the sales during the period of low sales may not work. This is because seasonality of the gardening industry is due to the weather conditions and not because of consumer preferences or behaviour.

In the consumer market, Hydrocan are competing with fertilizer manufacturers. From the article, we learn that the consumer market for fertilizers is highly competitive. Therefore, when Hydrocan launches Stagreen in the consumer market, they should expect tough competition. The probability of beating tough competition when a company is a late entrant is usually very low unless the management of the company comes up with a foolproof marketing strategy.

The commercial market has its advantages too. One of the merits is the fact that the use of fertilizers has come under a lot criticism. The golf courses who are the major customers in the commercial market are being criticized for polluting the environment especially the ground water. Therefore, this situation is an advantage to Hydrocan Company since they have a StaGreen.

StaGreen is different from the fertilizer offered by different companies. In addition to this, StaGreen is specialized in enhancing growth of grasses used in lawns and golf courses. This is an advantage to Hydrocan since all the other competitors in the market offer fertilizers that specifically nourishes the grasses are small firms or divisions of the larger chemical companies. Fertilizers pollute the underground water.

Another advantage in the commercial market is the fact that the companies in this market spend less than 9% of their total sales on marketing. This means that the companies in this market are making high profits due to low expenses. Considering the fact that Hydrocan is a firm in the pioneer stage the concept of reduced market costs will be a relevant option to ensure survival. The other advantage of the commercial is that it is not seasonal.

Therefore, companies can trade all year long without high fluctuations in the sales. The ability to trade throughout the year presents the company with an incentive to survive. This is because, as long as they are able to meet their breakeven point, they can manage to keep paying their fixed costs. In the process, they will be trading and establishing a brand for their products.

The disadvantages of entering the commercial market also exist. Companies try to build long lasting relations with their customers. This is a challenge to Hydrocan. Moreover, the golf courses are very rigid when purchasing fertilizer. Therefore, it takes tremendous marketing effort to ensure that the golf courses switch brands. This means that, even though Hydrocan is offering a unique product, it will take an enormous amount of effort before they can dislodge their competitors in the market.

The market is also considerably smaller than the consumer market and has no distribution channels. Therefore, when entering this market Hydrocan has to establish its own distribution channels. Moreover, they have to dislodge the competitors who hold the 1800 golf courses before they can claim a sizeable amount of the market.

Analysis of Alternatives

After checking the pros and cons of the options available, it is suitable to analyze the alternative Hydrocan should choose. The two options have in their own advantages and disadvantages. However, it is all comes down to the main objective of operating a business when choosing the market.

Hydrocan operate with the aim of making a profit. On the other hand, marketing is a tool used to maximize the profits of any company. In order to decide between the two alternatives in the market, Hydrocan may use models. This article uses porters five forces model.

This model operates on the assumption that there are five forces in the market. These forces determine the level of competition expected in the market. These forces include the supplier power, buyer power, competition, and availability of close substitutes and the ease of entry. Therefore, when choosing the market to sell StaGreen, Hydrocan needs to identify the operation of these forces in the market. When utilizing this model, Hydrocan marketers have to compare the two market situations.

In the case of supplier power, most of the companies in the consumer market use more or less the same distribution channels that consist of three major players. The discount stores make 60% of the sales. Home improvement stores and specialty stores sell 10% and 30% respectively.

In this light of events, we find that the supplier power is not a major determinant when choosing the market to sell Stagreen. This is because all companies use similar suppliers. On the other hand, commercial market has no suppliers. Therefore, the power of a company to supply in this market is a major player in determining the sales that companies will make.

In the case of buyer power, the consumer market has consumers who purchase commodities can purchase good up to 322.4 million dollars. This represents a significant ability to purchase. However, the buyers can only purchase Stagreen between the months of April and September.

This represents a downside in the purchasing power of the consumers. On the other hand, the 1800 golf courses use up to 300,000 to 800000 dollar to maintain the course. 24% of this cost represents cost used to purchase fertilizer. Therefore, the buyer power on this market is also viable. Moreover, they purchase the fertilizers and lawn products throughout the year.

Competition in the consumer market is a little bit slack despite the fact that the article indicates there is high competition in the market. This is because two of the firms in the industry hold up to 50% of the market. On the other hand, the commercial market has established firms.

These firms have developed relations with the clients making it hard for a new entrant in the market to dislodge them. Competition is usually associated with ease of entry. Therefore, the higher the completion the easier it is to enter whereas the lower the competition the harder it is to enter. Therefore, considering the two cases it is easier to sell StaGreen in the consumer market first than in the commercial market.

Lastly, in the consumer market the customers are not product specific. They can either use the fertilizers or use StaGreen. This shows that it is easier to enter the consumer market since they can easily substitute fertilizer for Stagreen. On the other hand, the commercial market is product specific, and buyers choose fertilizers according to the effect they have on grass.

Therefore, for Hydrocan to enter this market, it is a compulsory for them to provide fertilizer specifically for grasses. Hydrocan is lucky in the sense that StaGreen is highly specific in enhancing the growth of grass. Therefore, buyer in the commercial market can embrace StaGreen since they are seeking an alternative to fertilizers.


The recommendations on this article are based on alternative analysis using the Porters five forces model. Basing the argument on pros and cons then it is advisable for Hydrocan to enter the consumer market. This is because it is easier to enter the consumer market due to the high competition level. Moreover, Hydrocan Company does not require a supply channel and the buyer power is extremely high.

Another recommendation is that the Hydrocan should desist from entering into the commercial market since the ease of entry is extremely demanding. Logic demands that companies should not try to enter into extremely difficult market situations especially in cases where there is an alternative. Therefore, it is advisable for Hydrocan to establish itself in the consumer market first, make profits, then try to break into the commercial market.


Hydro is a company that has invented a new product known as StaGreen. This product is used in the lawns and gardening sector. Therefore, Hydrocan wishes to commercialize the product. They engage the services of Stone Age Marketing Consultants who provide them with information on the two target markets. Using Porters five forces model, this article determined a suitable market where Hydrocan may start its trading activities.


Hale, T. A. (1996). Green Pastures: The Launch of StaGreen by Hydrocan. Purchasing Management Association of Canada, 4 (2), 127-133

The Problems that Lake Tahoe Faces

Lake Tahoe has not only transformed America, it has also played a major role in the conquest of California. The lake put a beginning to a sexual revolution, was a premise for a ski industry and also led to the launch of Republican Party. The novel Tahoe beneath the Surface by Scott Lankford tells about a hidden history of the most famous residents of the Lake Tahoe. The novel provides tales about Rat Pack, Mafia dons and mysterious legends of Indian tribes.

The novel brings to light the values of Lake Tahoe illustrating why it is one of the hot spots in America. It also traces the steps of authors like Maxine Hong Kingston, Bertrand Russell and Michael Ondaatje. In addition, it reveals the darkest pages of the American history, such as Kennedy assassination and anti-Chinese racism.

The novel also shows how lives of such famous people like Frank Sinatra, John Muir, and Mark Twain were influenced by this lake. These characters both have specific reasons as to why they value Lake Tahoe, for example Sinatra value lake Tahoe because of its glamour and glitz, while Muir values it for its natural beauty and Cousteau values the lake for its natural waters (Scott 98).

However, even regardless of the influence on life of many people, there are several environmental threats that the lake faces making it increasingly vulnerable. There are also Tahoe Blue in the lake, which is a term used by the author Lankford to describe the meaning represented by the lake, its beauty and range of life around it. It is however important to preserve Lake Tahoe since it has transformed America and the people leaving around it.

Lake Tahoe has acted as one of the most beautiful cites in the whole world, however, it is still troubled by numerous environmental harms. Since 1844 when Lake Tahoe was discovered, the lake has acted as scenic attraction site because of its natural beauty and surrounding which is one of the reasons why John Muir, a character in the novel, valued the lake.

On the other hand, Frank Sinatra who is one of the characters in the novel, also valued the lake because of its glamour and glitz. This is one of the reasons why Lake Tahoe needs to be preserved, as its site can act as a source of revenue to America when tourists come to view the place. Many scientists, community leaders and government seek to find ways to preserve the lake and restore its distinctive biological diversity.

Cousteau who is one of the characters of the novel Tahoe beneath the Surface values the Lake Tahoe for its natural waters. Lake Tahoe straddling along the California-Nevada border is well known for its clean waters usually referred to as jewel of the Sierra (Scott 100).

However, subsequent development and growth has become one of threats faced by Lake Tahoe since it menaces the clarity of the natural waters. This part of the lake is the centerpiece of ecosystem where many resource managers and scientists have continually been examined. They measure, sample, test and restore the biodiversity and landscape of the lake.

They try their best to ensure that Lake Tahoe restores back its natural waters which has acted as a home for many plant species and wildlife. If the water is endangered then it means that the lives of these plants and animals are in danger too. This is why it is very crucial that the lake be preserved to save the plants and animals and also the clarity of the water. About 200,000 acres of the lake have ecologically sensitive slopes, marshes and meadows (Dylan 110).

Economic development and growth have a negative effect on the environment of the lake despite the fact that it has contributed to the prosperity of the region that is situated near the lake. Nevertheless, there is a great decline in biodiversity in the lake due to the polluted air and soil.

The soil and air around Lake Tahoe need to be fresh to enable survival of living organisms in it and around it. It is therefore crucial to preserve the lake. Regional goals have been adopted by American government to promote and expand bio-logical diversity of wildlife, fish and communities that habit in and around Lake Tahoe.

Landowners around Lake Tahoe have also taken the initiative of reclaiming those parts of the lake that are troubled to see in it that they are well preserved. 85 percent of the land along Lake Tahoe belongs to California Department of Parks and Recreation, U.S Forest Service, California Tahoe Conservancy and Neva da Division of States Parks. However, the remaining part of the land along Lake Tahoe is privately owned (Byron & Charles 86).

Biodiversity conservation at Lake Tahoe has become a major challenge because of high economic growth and development in the area which has slowed down the rate of degradation. The basin is being used heavily making it hard to conserve the region.

As such, there are many environmental problems faced by the region, they include, erosion, dead trees and al gal growth. However, environmental problems along the lake basin are mainly caused by humans. Due to many activities in the lake basin which disturb the soil, erosion occurs which results in lasting detrimental effects on Lake Tahoe (Dylan 110). This has led to renowned clarity of the lake.

The crystal waters of Lake Tahoe are being washed by sediments loaded with algae-feeding nutrients (Byron & Charles 87). It is therefore important to stem out the erosions by building terrains or steep in rocky areas while in flat regions, revegetation will help maintain the rich soil (Dylan 121). Curbs, culverts and gutters can also be used to fix erosion.

The dying and dead trees are removed from the lake to prevent the existing vegetations from dying and also to allow animals in the lake to move freely. Removing the dead trees is also a way of reducing fire hazards along the basin and also to restore back vegetations that had been affected by trees (Scott 156). Dense forests are also thinned where unnatural trees are removed. Careful burning is also prescribed in the area so that no plant or animal is affected by the fire.

Another major challenge that Lake Tahoe faces is persistent increase in temperature of its waters which has a great impact on the ecosystem of the entire lake. A study conducted by Schladow shows that the waters of the lake are warm.

This temperature does not favor the growth of most plants in the lake; recently, different types of algae were seen growing in the lake which is different from the previous once (Coats, Chris & Schladow 129). This means that Lake Tahoe has become hospitable to persistent fish and plants due to the warm temperatures.

There is an increase in warm-water species such as carp and bass. However, this means that the plants and fish that were favored by cold temperature no longer exist in the lake because the warm temperature does not favor them. It is therefore crucial that activities carried out around the lake should be regulated so that the lake can experience a change in temperature to be able to contain more plants and animals.

In conclusion, it should be mentioned that given the fact that Lake Tahoe has transformed lives of many American people, as well as the entire country, has played a major role in conquest of California, and sparked several revolutions, I can say that the lake is worth saving. Lake Tahoe is valuable not only to the citizens of America but to the entire world as it has a beautiful site that attracts attention. However, Lake Tahoe is facing numerous challenges which have endangered the lake.

Many individuals including the government are working together to ensure that Lake Tahoe is preserved and its natural environment is reclaimed. Preserving the lake will also help improve the health of the forest, the quality of the water and air, and consequently its biological diversity. Lankford uses different characters who valued Lake Tahoe; the story of Muir was more compelling than the rest of other stories and his connection to the lake seemed to be more resonate to mine.

Works Cited

Byron, Earl & Charles, Goldman. Land-Use and Water Quality in Tributary Streams of Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada. Journal of Environmental Quality, 1989. 18 (1): 84–88.

Coats, Perez-Losada, Chris, Goldman & Schladow, Richards. The Warming of Lake Tahoe: Climatic Change. California: Public Press, 2006.

Dylan, Silver. A need for care: South Lake Tahoe faces shortage of foster parents. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Scott, Elvis. The Saga of Lake Tahoe: Early Lore and History of the Lake Tahoe Basin. New York: Sunset Magazine, 1957.

Scott, Lankford. Tahoe beneath the Surface: The Hidden Stories of America’s Largest Mountain Lake. California: Heyday Publishers, 2010.

Employment Laws

(1). Chronology of employment laws

The Clayton Act was enacted in 1914, with the intention of establishing legal protection for organized labor. There was a need to assert the position of labor in the face of antitrust legislations, and this is what the law was intended to achieve. In 1926, the Railways Act was passed. It was meant to encourage collective bargaining among employers, and prohibit discrimination against unions.

The Davis-Bacon Act was passed by Congress in 1931, to address the problem of wage payment in the construction industry. Its provisions required a contract for construction into which the federal government entered, to specify the minimum wage to be paid to laborers employed under that contract (Federal Labor Laws, n.d).

In order to increase protection for union activities and collective bargaining, Congress passed the Norris-NaGuardia Act in 1932. The Act legalized strikes and other collective ways of dealing with labor issues, and also prohibited the enforcement of ‘yellow dog’ agreements or contracts through the courts of law. The National Industry Recovery Act was enacted in 1933, and congress intended to set standards of ‘fair competition’, by regulating regular working hours and wages (Federal Labor Laws, n.d)..

The National Labor Relations Act-1935 was passed by Congress in order to regulate labor relations among employees whose activities affected interstate commerce, except those in the agricultural sector.

The Act also established the NLRB, through which labor disputes would be handled, and prohibited employers from engaging in any of the prohibited unfair practices. In 1936, Congress enacted the Walsh-Healy Act, whose intention was to restrict the regular working hours, establish minimum wages and regulate the employment of children and ex-convicts (Federal Labor Laws, n.d).

In order to introduce some limitations to the rights enjoyed by trade unions, Congress enacted the National Labor Relations Act in 1947. The Act introduced measures to delay or avert ‘emergency strikes’ and prohibited the discriminative ‘closed shop’ practices of trade unions.

The Equal Pay Act was passed by congress in 1963 to prohibit the act of paying different amounts of money to male and female employees, only because they were male or female. This law was also enacted in order to protect employees from retaliation, if they filed complaints against their employers.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, was enacted to protect the rights of individuals, and to prohibit various actions by employers that the law classified as discriminatory (Federal Labor Laws, n.d). This list is not exhaustive, and many more employment laws exist in the US.

In the recent past, there has been a marked increase in the calls for equality and protection from discrimination at the work place. Legislations such as The Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Civil Rights Act of 1991, and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 all prohibit different types of discriminations.

These legislative efforts have led to the reduction of discrimination at the work place, as these laws prescribe heavy penalties for the commission of prohibited acts by employers and their agents.

(2). Scenario

Discrimination at the workplace on the basis of sex is prohibited by employment laws in the United States (EEOC, n.d). There are several options that an aggrieved party can pursue in order to have his/her grievance addressed. These options include; internal dispute resolution procedures at the workplace, filing a complaint with the EEOC, or litigation among others (EEOC, n.d). If an employee files a complaint against the employer, he/she is protected from retaliation by the law.

Smith has a case against the company for retaliation, since the law prohibits retaliatory acts by the employer against an employee who files a complaint against it.

The remedies available to a victim of retaliation include; compensatory damages for expenses or losses that he/she may have incurred as a result of the retaliatory act, and punitive damages to punish the employer especially where the act was malicious or reckless (EEOC, n.d).

Before he can recover, Smith will have to prove; that he exhausted the internal dispute resolution mechanisms laid down by the company before proceeding to the EEOC, and that he suffered damage or loss as a result of the retaliatory act. He will also have to establish the company’s vicarious liability for the acts of the offending party in order to recover against it.


EEOC. (n.d.). Sex-Based Discrimination. Retrieved from

Federal Labor Laws. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Management of Resources of Fire Services


Fire services in the region have undergone major changes and innovation since the turn of the century. This has been facilitated by new legislations and operational procedures in response to terrorist threats and attacks. The changes are all aimed at making the services more efficient and effective in offering its services. The service adopted an all-round approach in improving its quality in terms of service delivery and aligning itself to the growing environmental requirements and regulations.

This paper studies the human resource management in the fire and rescue service in the United Kingdom. It shall analyze the scope of functions of this department, and ways it ensures the well being of its employees as a motivational strategy to good performance.

Besides the human resource, the fire service has other resources. These are the financial and physical resources. These, too, need to be well managed and be kept in good condition to ensure that they perform their tasks well. We shall, therefore, look at the various principles guiding the management of financial and physical resources in the fire services.

An important process in the fire services is procurement of equipment and services. The service deals with all sorts of incidents, some which require modern and sophisticated technology to tackle. The quality and condition of these equipments is also an important aspect to ensure the safety of the crew handling them and that they are efficient to work with.

This is why the procurement process is an important process in the fire service. We shall, therefore, examine this process and factors that shape the process. Finally, we shall study the operational and assurance evaluation of the fire crew.


Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management is concerned with managing the human resource in an organization. The department is responsible for employees in terms of staff numbers, remuneration and compensation of employees, and defining employees’ tasks and responsibilities within the organization work framework. These responsibilities are all in an effort to increase and improve employees’ productivity by aligning their work with an organization’s mission and goals (Armstrong, 1999).

The practice of human resource appreciates certain principles that are important to the survival of a business organization. One is that employees are the most important resource of an organization. These are the ones who can see an organization succeed or fail. Taking good care of the human resource is tantamount to taking good care of the organization.

Human Resource Management in Fire and Rescue Services

The department is responsible for the very important task of employing, promoting, and dismissal of fire personnel. A number of fire firms in the UK use FireWatch in managing employment of staff. This system ensures competency in recruiting of staff, promoting good performing staff, and executing tax reductions effectively, fairly and objectively.

The system judges individual and team performance against pre-set indicators. This saves an organization’s money and time that would have been spent to make these evaluations. This technological gadget aides the recruitment process so that the best qualified fire personnel are selected for the job (Taylor, 2006).

Fire and rescue services need healthy and energetic employees to handle the daunting tasks the firemen face at their work place. To attain better services and provide a supportive environment for the firemen, the human resource department provides a round-the-clock monitoring of its employees to detect any irregularities. These include health, safety, and welfare needs of employees. This procedure has managed to track down cases of undue absence and abuse of employees. This way, fatalities are easily detected and immediate aid accorded (Green, 1999).

Because the firemen are exposed to health hazards as part of their job, the service provides comprehensive medical cover for all employees. Health physicians and nurses perform routine check ups and monitoring of long term health complications in employees.

Measures of managing these conditions are then recommended for employees, while those whose conditions are likely to be aggravated by the nature of the work are relieved of the duties. All treatment including physiotherapy, operations, and psychological attention are funded by the service companies. This is in line with labour laws in the UK to ensure employees’ safety at work places.

Employment procedures seek to cater for matters of equality in gender and age of the employees. It is true that men from ethnic majorities are over-represented compared to women from ethnic minorities. To address this issue, efforts are in place to increase the number of women recruited and overall representation of ethnic minorities.

There have also been reports of discrimination in allocation of tasks based on gender, race, and disability. The department outlawed all forms of discrimination on these bases or any other and fire members have been informed of channels of exposing this vice (Barry & Brandt, 1993).

Women tend to occupy the lower cadres while men dominate top positions. This is due to change as efforts are in progress to see more women progress to take up senior positions and improve their earnings (McGhee, 2011).

The department has been quite successful at outlining specific duties for all employees as per their qualifications. Cases of overlapping of tasks by employees have been reduced, thus minimizing conflict among employees. Duties that have to be carried out in turns are also clearly specified with the persons responsible at any one time. This has increased efficiency and increased the morale of employees are roles are shared equitably.

Another major task of the human resource department is to ensure free flow of communication among employees and between employees and management. The department has drawn up clear lines of authority so that employees know at any one time who they should consult and be answerable to.

This avoids haphazard communication whereby employees take orders from irrelevant personnel. This way, order is maintained within the service. To aid this effort, the department has set up feedback mechanisms through which employees can freely express their views on the operations and management of the service without fear of victimization. Customers are also encouraged to air their views and assessment of the company’s services giving credit and pointing out areas for improvement (Beardwell & Holden, 2007).

It is the role of the human resource department to ensure that its employees are well rewarded for their efforts, thus motivated enough to perform their duties well. The department measures every employee’s performance at specific intervals to point out positive aspects and those that are found wanting of an employee. Good performance is rewarded fairly, while poor performance is reprimanded, and at times such employees are dismissed.

The department offers necessary training and re-training in areas core to the mission of the organization. With the advancement of technology, new equipment keeps emerging in the fire industry and the employees need to be updated on such technology at all times. It is through such training that employees’ performance and development is evaluated.

Training includes programs of orientation, acclimatization, and familiarization with new equipment and procedures of operation. This training has been successful as the organization has registered increased profitability, efficiency at work, and a decrease in supervision of employees at work (Callerstig, Harrison & Lindholn, 2009).

Principles of Management of Financial and Physical Resources in the Fire Service

Resources in the fire and rescue service include human, information and technology, vehicles, and various fire equipments. Effective management of these resources is important so that the organization operates within its budget, to ensure that staff offer their services properly, and that services they offer are of good quality and efficient in offering them. Poor management of an organization’s resources is a guarantee to failure of the business (Flynn, 2007).

One of the key principles of financial management is that an organization should maintain accounting records in accordance to the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). This ensures that correct figures are entered into accounting books, and expenditure is rightfully accounted for.

Anther principle is that the service should ensure that its financial activities are in line with the laws and regulations of the government and donors. Documentation procedures should exhibit high standards of compliance to these laws.

Managerial financial reports should be accurate and relevant to financial operations of a specific period. Access to these should be retained for relevant and authorized personnel only to avoid errors and misappropriation.

Budgetary controls should be applied effectively. These help to monitor variations in budget details and detect deviations from budget estimates, providing necessary explanation for such irregularities. Budget control will also be used to detect areas that need additional funding such as sophisticated fire equipment because the current ones are costly to maintain. Such a recommendation can be presented to the relevant authorities who will authorize the additional funding as necessary (Flynn, 2007).

Management of physical resources includes management of activities such as vehicle maintenance, replacement of appliances, equipment testing, maintenance of premises, and provision of technical equipment among others.

In managing these properties, the following principles must be born in mind. Policies regarding physical resources and handling procedures must the aligned with their contribution in achieving the service’s objectives and goals. This will enable employees and fire personnel to handle and manage resources effectively in order to achieve overall effectiveness and an organization.

Management should always be keen to ensure its employees’ safety while handling work equipment and appliances. It is, therefore, a core principle in resource management that physical resources are in good working condition and that employees handling them have sufficient knowledge and skills of handling them. Faulty equipments are likely to cause more harm and destruction, and should be avoided or repaired appropriately (Ulrich, 1998).

Procurement Processes in the Fire and Rescue Services

Terrorism and terrorist activities and threats changed the course of the fire services in the UK. The service needed an efficient procurement system unlike the one that existed before to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. Currently, the service spends up to 90 million pounds a year on fire equipment and services.

The service carries out its procurement through corporate contracts that are won by free and fair competition. The procurement process is divided into two: routine and major procurements. Routine procurements include procurement of such routine equipment as stationery, while major procurement being procurement of high value projects.

For routine procurement costing less than 10,000 pounds, no formal procurement process is used. For those costing up to 20,000, tenders are advertised and a suitable supplier is selected competitively.

Procurements of above 20,000 are classified as major procurements and require formal processes. For tenders costing up to 173,934 pounds, tenders are invited and selected through a formal and competitive bidding process. Tenders costing above this figure are procured according the European procurement laws.

Due to market monopolies and domination by a few companies, the procurement process aims at promoting and providing ground for fair competition for both big and small companies. The procurement process, therefore, gives small companies and the third sectors opportunities to vie for tenders with big companies (Flynn, 2007).

The procurement process aims to promote improvement and efficiency within the services through competitive procurement practices. The practice of procurement is done responsibly to ensure that the goods and services procured are environmentally friendly and that they are of social value to the community.

The service, in an effort to encourage environmental friendly practices, replaced all its vehicles with those that pollute the environment less, and fitted its stations with solar panels to save energy. As a reward for all these efforts, the service received the Gold Standard of the Mayor’s Green Procurement Code and other awards in the mayor’s code.

Operational Assurance and Evaluation

The fire and rescue service has undergone vigorous operational evaluation to ensure that their services are up to standard and in line with fire operational requirements. Self assessments within the organization have helped the organization focus on new and better ways to ensure efficient service delivery and areas for improvement.

Such evaluations are key in monitoring the organizations’ systems of working and assess performance of crew during possible incidents. This, in turn, is used to inform the effectiveness of operational procedures and operations (Flynn, 2007).

Every fire personnel, including firefighters, crew, and various managers are responsible for ensuring that their performance and that of others is good enough for the operations. Honest evaluations of colleagues and junior staff are encouraged among the personnel so that they can all ensure that they offer quality services to the community.

Tactical Advisors are mandated with the formal task of evaluating and assessing operational effectiveness of the fire personnel. A Tactical Advisor is available at incident scenes at the incident command system to observe and report on the activities of the firefighters regarding handling of equipment, compliance of the fighters with the standard operating procedures and legislations, and other aspects of performance. Besides assessing performance, the tactical advisor acts as a mentor and guide to the fire crew.

Such formal feedback by the tactical advisor and other informal feedback by colleagues is used as a tool for assessing the performance of the firemen. The reports are used to point at good performance and even reward it. Poor performance is reprimanded and punished where a fire crew is found to have acted with negligence (Kavanagh, 2011).

The Community Response Support Team collects feedback from the Incident Forms, Tactical Advisor Forms, and Incident Debrief Forms. These are then submitted to the Response Support Department who evaluate the findings in the reports. The outcome of the evaluation is then presented to the Response Policy Group.

This group studies the report to find areas that are best performed and, therefore need no more improvement, areas that need more practice and investment in equipment for sufficient practice, and future recommendations for better practice.


The fire and rescue services department is an important department in the United Kingdom and all other countries. The human resource department is endowed with the task of procuring employees, the most important resource in any organization. This, it does with utmost objectivity so that it can employ the best qualified persons for the job.

There are other resources besides the human resource. These include the financial and physical resources. These have to be managed well so that the service can utilize most of their benefits before they wear out. Financial management is important for the services, because most government services fall prey to poor financial management as they get their funds from the state.

The service procures other items and services besides the human resource. These are procured through a comprehensive procurement system involving formal procedures to avoid embezzlement and promote equity and fair competition for tenders.

Finally, fire services have to be assesses from time to time to evaluate performance of workers and effectiveness of organizations’ facilities. This provides organizations’ management with knowledge on areas for improvement and future redress.

The fire and rescue service of the United Kingdom is among the best fire service globally. This is as a result of efforts by the central government to equip the service with the best equipments and training for its employees.

Reference List

Armstrong, M., 1999. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. London: Kogan Page Limited.

Barry, R., & Brandt, R., 1993. Effective Human Relations in Organizations. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Beardwell, I., & Holden, L., 2007. Human Resource Management- A Contemporary Approach. NJ: Prentice Hall.

Callerstig, A., Harrison, K., & Lindholn, K., 2009. Gender and Rescue Services. Cambridge: Fitting-In.

Flynn, N., 2007. Public Sector Management. London: Sage Publications.

Green, P., 1999. Building Robust Competencies: Linking Human Resource Systems to Organizational Strategies. CA: Jossey-Bass.

Kavanagh, G., 2011. Defining the Role of Gold Commander. Cambridge: Fitting-In.

McGhee, J., 2011. What Impact has the Organization of Women’s Groups in the Fire Brigades Union had on the Participation of Women, the Culture and the Effectiveness of the Organization? London: London Metropolitan University.

Taylor, S., 2006. People Resourcing. London: CIPD.

Ulrich, D., 1998. Delivering Results: A New Mandate for HR Professionals. Harvard: Harvard Business School Press.

Social Inequalities


Social inequalities seem to typify the American society. The federal government is desperately attempting to raise the debt ceiling to cover up for high debt due to insufficient revenues. That notwithstanding, it is now apparent that myriads of billionaires and millionaires rarely pay their income taxes.

This is despite making huge incomes from their investments. Conversely, tax evasion amongst the middle and lower class is an offense that invites horrendous punitive measures (Kourvetaris, 1997). How do the rich avoid paying income tax to the government? Have people banded together to counter this source of social inequality?

Tax Avoidance by Billionaires

There are various ways that the rich are able to avoid taxation. In 2009, the IRS revealed that almost 1,500 billionaires and millionaires in the country did not pay a single dollar as income tax (Wilkinson & Pickett, 2009). First, the billionaires seem to be very philanthropic by contributing to charities and donating to ‘worthy causes’.

However, the tax regime dictates that such amounts that go directly to charity and other philanthropic activities are not subject to tax. Hence, many billionaires use this loophole to evade some significant percentage of their income from inviting taxation. Philanthropy has now become a way of improving the billionaires’ public image. Since they are the faces of their establishments and companies, they begin to make more sales and subsequent more profit in the name of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

On the other hand, the middle class seldom make enough income to direct huge amounts to charitable events and organizations. The little they donate contributes a meager percentage of their income implying that the larger portion of their income is subject to taxation. According to Wilkinson & Pickett (2009), a middle class and lower classes are subject to an estimate of 35% in tax rate while the wealthy individuals only pay amount less than 17%. Besides, the middle and lower classes are not endowed with incredibly huge business ventures and companies that can invite higher returns because of improved public image (Chowning, 2001). This depicts the class disparities that fuel social inequalities within the American society.

The billionaires also evade income taxation by investing in foreign countries. In fact, they are well advised to which country they ought to locate their business. Mainly, they consider countries that charge least amount of income tax on their companies (Shapiro, 2004).

According to economists and tax experts, a company operating in foreign land pays the income tax to the host country and is not subject to paying tax in the United States (Bhim & Salvatore, 2009). The rationale is that a single company cannot pay twice in terms of income tax. They claim that, if that were to happen, it would result to double taxation.

Sidaneus & Felicia (1999) explain that the billionaires capitalize on this loophole and invest in countries with high return on investments and low income tax on foreign direct investments. This does not only increase their wealth, it also exempts them from income tax.

Take a scenario of a middle and lower class citizens whose wealth cannot allow them to invest in foreign countries. Hence, they invest locally where tax regime is significantly high. They end up paying more income tax for their companies (in terms of percentage of their income) than the billionaires and millionaires.

Third, the rich have a tendency of investing in statutory and government bonds. Bhim & Salvatore (2009) explicate that such investments bring immense income for the billionaires in the long term. However, the income is not a subject of taxation and therefore, all the millions that the wealthy make go untaxed. It is worth noting that the government and treasury bonds are very expensive costing millions of dollars.

This is dependent on their nature of the bonds. Subsequently, the low-income earners and middle class are unable to afford such bonds that are never a subject of tax (Wilkinson & Pickett, 2009). As such, the wealthy continue to become rich while the poor continue to struggle with high rates of inflation, unemployment and high tax rate. This is a source of social inequality.

Finally, the billionaires continue to wield huge influence on the policy making process of the government. While government economists and tax experts agree that there is a need for a change in the tax regime, there has been a momentous challenge in introducing the bill to the house.

In fact, President’s Obama articulated that it is only reasonable that the billionaires pay more tax than the lower income earners. The unseen hand of the billionaires has been apparent, owing to their resistance to agree with Obama’s assertion. The Republicans have opposed the move vehemently saying that it is sparking class wars. This has been acceptable amongst the society’s rich who find no problem with the continued social inequalities that are clearly entrenched in the current tax regime.

Have the people banded together against this inequality?

At the outset, numerous citizens mainly from the middle and lower classes have criticized the tax regimes. In 2011, numerous civil rights groups announced ‘Occupy the Wall Street Campaign’. There have been other calls to protest against the influence of the rich on the American society.

While the campaigns have been hugely unsuccessful, there has been debate about the authenticity of their protests. The budgetary team following the continued calls for change in government and tax policies came with budgetary estimates that seem to have the billionaires pay more taxes than the lower class and poor people in the society.

Although this is an indication that the people might win the war in the end, huge challenges remain on the way. The rationale is that not all the billionaires are in agreement with the government’s new directive. This means that they will continue to manipulate the policy-making processes.


In sum, the United States’ tax regime is a characteristic of social inequality. While the middle and the lower classes of the society struggle to make ends meet, they pay more taxes than renowned billionaires and millionaires. The billionaires have invested in foreign countries where income tax is low and the return on investments is extremely high. Thus, they evade paying income tax to the federal government due to the current tax regime principles of no double taxation.

Besides, they contribute significantly to charitable organizations and give donations, none of which is subject to tax. The billionaires continued investments in statutory and government bonds have seen them make more income that is not taxable. All this coupled with their growing influence on the policy making process has seen massive protests against the rich. The most notable one was ‘Occupy Wall Street Campaign’.


Bhim, A. & Salvatore, D. (2009). Social Inequality, Local Leadership and Collective Action: An Empirical Study of Forest Commons. European Journal of Development Research, 21(2), 178-179.

Chowning, D. (1971). When Men Revolt and Why: A Reader in Political Violence and Revolution. New York: The Free Press.

Kourvetaris, G. (1997). Political Sociology: Structure and Process. Boston, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon.

Shapiro, T. (2004). The hidden cost of being African- American. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sidaneus, J. & Felicia, P. (1999). Social Dominance: An Intergroup Theory of Social Hierarchy and Oppression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wilkinson, R. & Pickett, K. (2009). The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better. Boston, Massachusetts: Allen Lane.

Julius Caesar


Julius Caesar is an ancient Roman personality and an influential political figure. Moreover, conspirators, led by a personality called Brutus, assassinated him. Caesar’s role in the play is not immense, though he dominates the play, even after his demise in the third act of the play.

He is enigmatic and represents the focal theme of the play, the moral haziness surrounding his assassination (Shakespeare, 2011). The assassinating leader is an influential political figure and coveted leader who is a brutal and sadistic tyrant. Therefore, the conspiracy against him appears to be dignified and similarly malevolent.

Caesar’s Personality

Caesar is undoubtedly domineering. His first appearance depicts scores of admiring followers behind him. He is accustomed to dominion. Caesar depicts his dominance by dismissing the soothsayer when they warn him (Loos & Bloom, 2008). Sooner, Caesar’s undoubted and profound self-confidence disappears.

Additionally, Caesar’s smug feeling of power and dominion against other forces is conspicuously apparent in the way he converses or delivers his speeches to the people. He refers to himself as the royal ‘we’ and shows off his intentions of going to the senate and deferring unwelcome omens.

Alternatively, Caesar presents himself as the foremost man of the entire whole world. This clearly depicts itself when Brutus refers to him as a profound leader with influence and strength to lead. He only has few physical defects and disabilities including some epilepsy and mild deafness.

He is less susceptible to illness as Cassius complains. This, however, shows that Cassius is rather envious of Caesar. As Brutus notes, Caesar does not let his emotions rule his judgment capabilities (H.S.C). We depict his apt judgment quality; by the way, he portrays Cassius. Antony and Brutus did orate in funeral regarding Caesar’s profound virtues. All other characters always depict Caesar’s virtues in their dispositions.

It is odd that the central figure of the play demises before the play is half. Caesar’s spirit, however, continues dominating the play, even after his demise. Antony’s revenge for Caesar’s assassination forms a plot for the second half of the play as Brutus and Cassius contemplate upon Caesars’s thoughts.

This brings him to life throughout the entire play. Notably, both his conspirators speak about him on his death. They depict his ingenious and apt capabilities, his leadership and dominating spirit (Loos & Bloom, 2008). Brutus deviously demonstrates the psychology of influence by taking up Caesar’s arrogances, showing Caesar’s thirst for power and utter influence.

Caesar’s character revolves around a leader with various defects: manifested physically. Caesar has deafness, mild epilepsy and poor swimming. During his last days, Caesar takes up and believes in superstitions. This stresses and intellectual corruption that power can trigger which makes the audiences of the play sympathize with the assassins as they plot to murder Caesar.

Shakespeare softens Caesar’s guilt and conviction when he applies accusations against Caesar. Moreover, they would elicit the guilt in him and leave minimal room of doubt against his murder. He is responsible for looting a temple and dishonoring his wife to ease divorce procedures. Historians have established that Caesar’s policies and stipulations were not for creating a monarchy but were event-driven.

Caesar had various conquests in Britain and Gaul. In the due course of the play, he had won a war against Pompey. He headed a faction that would admit people into the new group that composed of the ruling class. He had fought several conservatives, depicting republican qualities that Brutus depicted in his personality.

He was not a revolutionary but was associated with dictatorship, where the system of awarding chief military commandants in times of war (H.S.C). He held a legitimate office in the Roman government, which he used to dispense his powers and protect his gains from the civil wars.

Apparently, Caesar was to get the crown and move the capital of Rome to Ilium, from where he would deliver his leadership to the entire nation. These came as rumors to Caesar, and he used his indispensable tactics to fend off the rumors. He refuted the crown as Casca reported (Shakespeare, 2011).

This shows that Caesar was extremely conservative than the nobility dreaded. He was aware of the assassination threats, instilling his extraordinary powers to give him an upper hand in dealing with his fears. Caesar required dictatorial powers to suppress and counter fight his foes in order to retain the Roman government. He resisted drastic reforms from his enemies and preserved the ancient Rome to a notable degree.

Apparently, various people purport that Caesar anticipated his end and demise, as it would progressively result into the elimination of aristocracy and dictatorship in the Roman history. He purportedly believed that his demise would bring grave repercussions to Rome. After his death, Rome experienced much greater tyranny and civil unrest.

Caesar’s Effect on Rome

Caesar, being the first ruler of the Roman Empire, was an instrumental figure in transforming Rome from a republic to an empire. He achieved this by meeting with various influential leaders at Triumvirate. Caesar formed an alliance with Pompey and Crassus, which lasted for some time (Riggsby, 2006).

This alliance made the Roman republic transform entirely into an empire. His negotiations and deliberations with Pompey through Crassus gave Caesar profound political influence and mettle, which subsequently eliminated civil war in Rome and made him the overall ruler of the empire. Additionally, it elicited better relationships between the leaders and pacified the Roman territories at that epoch.

The Gallic wars brought an advantage to the Roman Empire, through initiatives by Caesar to annex numerous territories and acquired more territory for Rome. He initiated various military crusades against the rival Gallic tribes, who lived in the present France (Riggsby, 2006). These crusades and operations were Gallic wars, where the Roman military, under Caesar’s influence, fought and annexed their territories.

Caesar’s profound tactics with his leadership brought about undisputed and immense victory for the Roman Empire. The victory against the Gallic tribes also augmented the Roman Empire’s territory coverage principally, under the sole leadership of Caesar. Because of the victory, Caesar made various constitutional reforms and became the ultimate ruler of Rome. Further campaigns expanded Roman territories.

Cesar inculcated a civil scuffle that lasted for a long period. He fought the civil wars with mettle and obtained the victory against his foes. In conjunction with the victory from the Gallic wars, Caesar solidified his role as the sole and influential leader of the Roman Empire. He was fighting the conservative Optimates from the Roman senate with ample reinforcement from his numerous followers.

The Optimates had an alliance with Pompey, one of the stakeholders in the first Triumvirate (Loos & Bloom, 2008). His sun disputed victory ensured that he retained his power against his foes, making Rome a dictatorship. This eased its ability to pursue more territories and win in future conquests amid political interference.

Kevin Rudd Compared to Caesar

Kevin Rudd currently serves as Australia’s Prime since 2007. He refers to himself as an acutely determined bastard, which sounds determined. There are several uncanny similarities between the Rudd and Caesar. First, both grew up in the wrong tracks, with a conception that they have to prove themselves more powerful, influential and superior to other aristocrats.

Both possess the sense of pride and self-determination, without dread for any circumstances in their way. They have the mettle to deal with their opponents with a profound magnitude of determination and esteem.

In terms of foreign policy, both Rudd and Caesar appear as expansionists and outward looking personalities. For instance, Rudd pursued an intense crusade for a chair on the Security board on the Libyan territory. Similarly, Caesar had to conquer in the Gallic wars. He dedicated his ample time and effort to secure more territories for Rome without limit and fought the Optimates and his foes without mercy. He promoted internal civil strife to satisfy his greedy desires of power and influence over his opponents and subjects.

Additionally, both had not established their political reform advances when their political rivals opposed them for various parochial or individual reasons. In Caesar’s case, he delegated his obligatory responsibilities of saving the Roman Empire from bankruptcy by fighting his foes and offering legal prerogatives and land to the poor folk. As for Rudd, he saved Australia from a grave financial disaster it had lagged in for a century. Notably, neither feat both practiced saved them from extermination by their hideous rivals.


If Caesar existed in today’s world, I suppose that he would still be dictatorial and egocentric. Despite his determination to dispense power and profound belief in autonomy, he would be inculcating numerous crusades to expand Roman territories. That would bring affluence to Rome, but still scuffles would comprise a humongous deal of adverse ties that come with his leadership.

Additionally, he would be a tyrant and a ruthless dictator who would bring affluence to his empire but inconvenience other nations. He would bring more demerits than benefits.


H.S.C. (n.d). Character Directory. Retrieved from

Loos, P. & Bloom, H. (2008). Julius Caesar. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing.

Riggsby, A. M. (2006). Caesar in Gaul and Rome: war in words. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Shakespeare, W. (2011). Julius Caesar. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.